Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Essay on The State, Media Policies DemocracyEssay Writing Service
Essay on The State, Media Policies DemocracyEssay Writing Service Essay on The State, Media Policies Democracy Essay on The State, Media Policies DemocracyThe issue regarding the relationship between the state, media policy and democracy has been widely discussed in scientific literature. There are different conceptions of democracy, which can be applied to different situations. On the one hand, the public has the right to participate in social affairs, applying democratic principles and effectively using the mass media information to achieve the established goals. On the other hand, the conception of democracy is that Ã¢â¬Å"the public must be barred from managing of their own affairs, but the means of information must be kept narrowly and rigidly controlledÃ¢â¬ (Chomsky, 1992, p. 10). According to Noam Chomsky (1992), Ã¢â¬Å"propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian stateÃ¢â¬ (p. 4). In other words, this phrase means propaganda is used by leaders to keep the masses under their control. Actually, Chomsky discusses the effectiveness of American propaganda effor ts, providing comprehensive historical evidence Ã¢â¬Å"from the warmongering of Woodrow Wilson to the creation of popular support for the 1991 military intervention in KuwaitÃ¢â¬ (Chomsky, 1992). He places emphasis on the effects of the falsification of historical data, suppression of vital information, as well as the use of the vapid concepts by the U.S. leaders, both Democrats and Republicans, pursuing the major goal to prevent the U.S. citizens from putting forward awkward questions about the adopted U.S. policy. Thesis statement: Propaganda can be viewed as an effective tool to promote democracy through the media, controlled by the state, although it may be ignored by people who have no interest in the proposed beliefs.The role of propaganda can be assessed from different perspectives. Noam Chomsky, the linguists and political thinker, highlights the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"the bewildered herdÃ¢â¬ that refers to the masses that are too ignorant to critically assess the media. Acco rding to Chomsky, Ã¢â¬Å"the bewildered herd, trampling and roaring, has its function: to be the interested spectators of action, not participantsÃ¢â¬ (Chomsky, 2004, p. 93). The state can be viewed as the specialized class, which involves not only policymakers, but also school teachers and principals, who lead and control the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"bewildered herdÃ¢â¬ .Ã The media can be used to direct the Ã¢â¬Å"bewildered herdÃ¢â¬ providing each member the sense of reality and instilling the proper beliefs. The so-called Ã¢â¬Å"gatekeepingÃ¢â¬ in relation to ChomskyÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments regarding Ã¢â¬Å"the bewildered herdÃ¢â¬ and propaganda being to democracy Ã¢â¬Å"what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian stateÃ¢â¬ can be explained by the impact of the state on media policy.Ã Some of the techniques of propaganda, which include codes and conventions that depend on cultural knowledge, can be used to orient the public in the world of politics. Actually, propagandaÃ¢â¬ â¢s function is to motivate others and influence the behavior of others in terms of politics. The techniques of propaganda are based on ethos, pathos and logos, because these elements make any argument more persuasive. As this strategy helps to produce successful propaganda, many propagandists combine democratic principles with the ideas expressed by the state to control media policies (Marlin, 2002). The art of propaganda is the art of persuasion, which proves the significance of the established ideology and proposed policy (Marlin, 2002). Codes and conventions that depend on cultural knowledge affect the quality of propaganda.Ã In general, such gatekeeping compromises BennettÃ¢â¬â¢s (2007) characterization of Ã¢â¬Å"news as a democratic information systemÃ¢â¬ because the news media fails to serve the needs of democracy in certain political contexts. Ã Lance Bennett (2007) is focused on the role of various political actors, including political leader, presidents, the memb ers of Congress, the members of interest groups and human activists in the functioning of the media to persuade people. According to Bennett, political thought is driven by the media, which provides both external and internal information. Many people ignore the news information because their interests are in conflict with the proposed beliefs. The media is focused on creating the healthy, trustworthy environment that is aimed at supporting the major stateÃ¢â¬â¢s policies, as well as the ideas of the interest groups. In other words, the media is used to maintain and promote the so-called illusions developed by the state to allow public opinion being influenced by the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s interests. The media operates as the tool to control political thought. Noam Chomsky (2004), as an experienced political thinker, believes that the media is a powerful force used by the state to create the required illusion of democracy. The media has the ability to construct public opinion as it is requ ired by those who are in power. The fact that the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution works to ensure freedom of press, driven by democratic principles, does not mean that the media reflects democracy. According to Chomsky, Ã¢â¬Å"if the powerful are able to fix the premise of discourse, to decide what the general populace is allowed to see, hear and think about, and to manage public opinion by regular propaganda campaigns, the standard view of how the system works is at serious odds with realityÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Best Radcliff, 2005, p. 72). Generally speaking, BennettÃ¢â¬â¢s characterization of Ã¢â¬Å"news as a democratic information systemÃ¢â¬ fails to reveal the real function of the media in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s political environment.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Thus, it is necessary to conclude that the role of the media in contemporary politics is crucial as it depends on the state, but, at the same time, it is influenced by democracy. The study of political power in relation to public opinion helps to evaluate the significance of propaganda. The media can be viewed as an effective tool to control and manipulate public opinion, based on the principles of democracy and the ideas of governmental elites. In other words democracy is influenced by the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s policies. ChomskyÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments regarding Ã¢â¬Å"the bewildered herdÃ¢â¬ and propaganda being to democracy Ã¢â¬Å"what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian stateÃ¢â¬ can be used to give explanation to the impact of the state on media policy. Although the media is considered to be free from the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s censorship, it is steadily compromised by the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s control. In some cases, the media fails to provide people with the type of information they need to assess the political situation and make the correct choices regarding their own interests in politics. The governmental elites who provide control over the functioning of the media also have control over publ ic opinion, shaping the information in their own interests. So, BennettÃ¢â¬â¢s characterization of Ã¢â¬Å"news as a democratic information systemÃ¢â¬ is false. Propaganda is crucial for the state as it maintains the illusion of democracy while permitting the interest groups to have power over public opinion.