Thursday, February 28, 2019
Foreign policy refers to the strategies that governments employ to guide their actions towards some other countries. The U. S. inappropriate policy is founded on the principles of state and tenets liberalization (Goldstein, 2003). The U. S. contrary policy takes into account issues of human rights, economic growth and development, terrorism and environmental adulteration and addresses them as challenges that can best be addressed through body politic in countries and institutions throughout the introduction (Goldstein, 2003).The U. S. foreign policy has undergone significant transitions that fight down different historical percentage points in the world that include the World war I, the World War II, the Cold War, the post Cold War period and the folk 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The United Nations and the United States atomic number 18 arguably the just about magnateful players in the foreign system as well as in the global political economics as a whole.Having been formed with the principal(prenominal) objective of promoting and achieving sustainable peace in the world, the United Nations remains the most dominant and most influential International Governmental Organization in the world (Roberts & Kingsbury 1994).In theoretical terms, the fundamental significance of the United Nations as well as the operational challenges faced by the institution are illustrated in the theory of naturalism which states that there is no world government, or political authority above the state, a situation that netly reduces the foreign system to absolute anarchy with the absence of any overarching political consistence with the capacity to enforce law and order among its members or nation states (Roberts & Kingsbury 1994).The realness theory stresses on the centrality of the state, or nation state as the ultimate political authority in the politics of the international system. As such, the dominant motive of all states is self-preservation through maxim ization of power, a characteristic that in effect transforms the international system of a war of all against all (Goldstein, 2003). The realism theory further argues that stability is best achieved in the balance of power which can be achieved through increased interactions among states, with the most powerful rustic playing the role of a hempen necktie (Goldstein, 2003).Today, the U. S. is the most powerful uncouth in the world and has effectively assumed the role of a balancer in the international system, with the United Nations serving as the overarching political remains with capacity to enforce law and order among its member states. Domestic human beings Attitudes toward Foreign Policy in the United States At the domestic level, the U. S. foreign policy enjoys a lot of stick out among the citizenry. According to a calculate by World national Opinion. org, a strong absolute majority of U. S. citizens victuals of the U. S. involvement in the world.However, the number o f U. S. citizens who feel disgruntled by the verdant foreign policies is growth steadily. The World Public Opinion. org has established that Americans overwhelmingly support the continued leadership role that the U. S. plays in the world. These findings were based on a 2006 GMF poll which indicated that 84 percent of those polled saying it was desirable for the U. S to use strong leadership affairs, with 43 percent having been quoted as expressing a US global influence as being very desirable, and only 14 percent expressing their concerns about the U.S. global influence. However, the overwhelming support of the U. S foreign policy by its citizenry does support the role of the U. S. in global affairs as a hegemony, but rather supports the idea of overlap leadership roles with other players in the international system. A significant component of the U. S population believes that the U. S security has been threatened by the centering the U. S. has been using the threats of milita ry force as leverage in the international system.In a poll conducted by the World Public Opinion. org, 63 percent of the respondents were of the view that the U. S. military threats prompt other countries to be preventative by developing and acquiring weapons of mass destruction. In another go off that was carried out in 2003 by the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, majority of the U. S. citizens faulted the war in Iraq, with 66 percent of the respondents believing that the war has had minus effects on the relations between the U. S. and the Muslim world.According to the survey, 64 percent of the respondents verbalized concerns that the war will not promote democracy in the Middle East maculation a further 61percent expressed fears that the war will not reduce the threat of terrorism. International Public Attitudes toward Foreign Policy in the United States There has been a growing disdain for the U. S. foreign policy in many countries throughout the world. The September 11 te rrorist attacks and the subsequent U. S. war on terror are seen as having particularly caused dramatic shifts in U. S. foreign policy (Grant, 2004).The military trading operations in Afghanistan that have been ongoing since October 2001 to date and the U. S. invasion of Iraq have taken toll on the image of the United States with people from around the world and those in the Muslim countries in particular showing the lowest ratings for the U. S foreign policy. According to the Pew Global Attitudes Project that is run by the Washington DC based Pew Research Centre, Americas image relative to the countrys foreign policy has dropped immensely over the years.According to the report of the project, the United States is trailing many countries in favorability ratings. Countries such as France, Germany, China and Japan are more frequent than the U. S in the European Union countries and Muslim countries. The study showed that while the ratings of the U. S were highest in Asian countries s uch as India, the favorability ratings of the country dropped by 15 percent in India between 2005 and 2006. The study further indicated that levels of ostracize attitudes that the populations of Western Europe have towards America are even high than they were in 2002 before the Iraq invasion.The Pew Global Attitudes Project report to a fault showed low ratings for President George supply both domestically and internationally, with the confidence in bush to make the right decisions in international affairs having dropped in seven of the eleven countries in 2005 as provided by the data that bring in the trends. The report further indicates a steady slump of rating for George Bush in European countries and among predominantly Muslim populations. George Bush registered the largest slump of ratings in the U. S. from 62 percent in 2005 to 50 percent in 2006.In regard to the War on Terror, the Pew Global Attitudes Project report an overwhelming decrease in international humans support for the U. S led war on terrorism. With Muslim countries having obviously registered the highest levels of criticisms against the war on terror, Spain and Japan also registered almost virtual collapse of support for the counter-terrorism war. As of 2006, the support for war on terror in Spain had reduced to 19 percent from 63 percent in 2003 while Japan registered public support of 26 percent from 61 percent in 2002, accord to information provided by the Pew Global Attitudes Project.
From various literatures, there is no clear definition about what post upstartism is. Dr. Mary Klages (2003), Associate Professor in the English Department at University of Colorado, says that postmodernism cannot be defined in a single marches. Instead, postmodernism can be considered as a complex term since it appears as a concept that exists in variety of study including art, fellowship, sociology, and technology.Postmodernism personate as the sign of new times, an outcome of changing trends in completely atomic number 18as of human life, the irruption of new social, political, cultural, and economic values which are nettle near great human behavioural changes in organizations. In addition, the postmodernism is considered as a new expression of philosophic, ontological, methodological, scientific, artistic, political, social, economic, etc. trends, and therefore a new spotter which set limits and deficiencies on modern expressions.Moreover, postmodernism is a new paradigm flack to knowledge, and it is also a new paradigm of aesthetic. Concerning the discussion of postmodernism, information science and technology, this paper will take into account the discussion about knowledge management in organizations. The reason to include the discussion of postmodernism in organizations is beca commit it represents the use of information science, sociology, and knowledge. I. 2 Characteristics of Postmodernism Organizations Any structure can be called as an organization because it is designed to carry out a given purpose.Organizations are living systems, oriented in the direction of a trend of self-organized patterns, structures and processes which resolve to demands of a complex and confused, changing environment through constant and fixed learning. Historically, organization theory originated from academic institutions within the context of socially legitimized human race institutions. Under such circumstances, learning capacity of organizations becomes key determinant in their survival to face various business challenges.Some characteristics of postmodernism organizations which influence on organizational analysis are as following 1. Identification With cogency being 2. Emphasis Effectiveness 3. Structure In function of grocery store needs 4. Focus of power Centralized in knowledge and image 5. Orientation Toward Market (Boje, M & Dennehy 2000) In organization practices, it is found that postmodernism tends to nip the organizations to avoid human beings from bureaucratic structures. This is because postmodernism has the philosophy to provide simplicity or else of complexity (Boje, M & Dennehy 2000).Links between modernity and postmodernism Modernity is practically characterized by comparing modern societies to pre-modern or post-modern ones, and the understanding of those non-modern social statuses is farther from an issue. To an extent, it is reasonable to doubt the very possibility of a descriptive concept that can adequatel y capture diverse realities of societies of various historical contexts. In term of social structure, many of the defining events and characteristics listed above stem from a transition from relatively isolated local communities to a more corporate large-scale society.There is a shift from the model of the modernist, factory-bureaucracy a harsh structure, with everything in place to do its particular function to the place where it has a connected with different types changing formation in response to the conditions. II. Postmodernism, amicable Science and technology In sociology point of view, there is a whimsy that postmodernism is considered as the results of the changes in economy, culture, and demography.In addition, postmodernism is also considered as the factors that contribute to the chute of service economy and the increasing interdependence of world economy. Concerning the relation of postmodernism in technology, there is a notion that technological utopianism is a com mon attribute in Western history and it is true in postmodernism era with some changes in the manifestation. In postmodernism era, the expression of technology comes in the form of the jerky increase in analog mass broadcasting of television.In this situation, mountain see the mass broadcasting of television as a liberating mash to human affairs since television has capability to provide various comprehendible symbols. This situation drives Newton N Minow to consider television as a vast wasteland. Another expression of technology in postmodernism era is the discipline of digital networking. In this view, digital communications are believed to provide modern society with positive feature since people are now enable to experiences in art, culture, and community that they think as being correct.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
This document localisees on the Chattanooga frosting slash Division shield study developed by Carl Sloane. leaders opportunities and presention are defined based on the characters in the drive study. Dysfunction is evaluated both from a police squad up aspect and from the leading role. specialised development activities are identified to armed service the individuals develop mad parole. Finally, recommendations give be made to guide the aggroup forward. Background Chattanooga meth Cream is a part of Chattanooga Food Corporation which is a family- sustainled business organisation founded in 1936 (Sloane, 1997).The crackpot cream division is one of the largest regional maufacturers of internal-combustion engine cream in the United States. The friendships primitive focus is mid-priced basic ice cream products. The ice cream division has been experiencing flat sales and a declining profitability over the past quadruple years (Sloane, 1997). Competitors had shown su ccess in recent years with premium and super-premium brands with mix-in ice cream flavors. The Chattanooga Food Corporation center on leadership changes in an attempt to improve the ice cream divisions performance.In 1993, Charles Moore was promoted to head the division. The ice cream division also hire a new vice president of marketing to replace a 30 year veteran. Stephanie Krane was assigned to the division to upgrade the information systems and manage function. In 1995, the original manufacturing plant in Chattanooga was closed to control costs. The steering changes resulted in a disruption to the top level circumspection team. Three of the seven ingredients of the management team were new to their positions. Additionally, Charles leadership musical mode was very different than his predecessor.The previous general manager had been with the business for some(prenominal) years and had numerous net consummations to gather information. He made important decisions all and r arely felt the need to consult his management team. The Dysfunction The ice cream division sales continued to fall, and the company recently scattered a significant customer to Sealtest. The announcement of this loss resulted in commit criticism from virtually all team members. In the past, when issues arose and blaming between departments occurred Moore would non respond in hopes that the managers would quit complaining about each(prenominal) other.Moore believes in the value of group based decisions and liked to bring hoi polloi unitedly formally to percent information, consult on decisions, and forge consensus (Sloane, 1997). Moore would rank heights in coaction using the Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode creature (TKI). The TKI (2007) states that the overuse of collaboration and consensual decision making sometimes represents a desire to minimize risk by diffusing responsibility for a decision or by postponing action.The assessment goes on to state that a person with a hig h collaboration score may look across some cues that would indicate the presence of defensiveness, impatience, private-enterprise(a)ness, or conflicting interests. Moore appears to also estimation the avoiding mode when conflict arises. Avoiders tend to hope that conflict goes away on its own. Moore has been avoiding conflict by not addressing the conflict when it arose. The disk Assessment is a tool to help an individual understand themselves and others. Based on the gaucherie study by Sloane (1997) Moore appears to be an S, which stands for steadiness.The S style prefers to work at a methodical pace and to focus on their tasks without interruption. They seek a calm, orderly structure where collaboration and group effort are wanted ( dish, 2008). People that assume an S profile are demotivated in competitive environments, do not like being rushed into quick decisions, or having to be confrontational. These three traits of Charlie Moore have resulted in a lack of leadership th rough conflict and the inability to make a decision without collaboration time. As a leader, Moore has not displayed the four key precepts to success harmonise to Jack Welch in benignant (2005).These basic principles are com kicking and vision, verity, differentiation, and vocalisation and dignity. First, Moore has not created a vision for the Ice Cream Division, and the division appears to be relatively isolated from the overall explosive charge of the Chattanooga Food Corporation. tally to Welch (2007), the mission tells where you are going and the values describe the behaviors that testament originate you there. Charlie Moore has been the General Manager for four years, yet it does not appear that he has determined how the Ice Cream Division can win in their current market, nor has he defined what winning means.The bet on principle is candor. forthrightness facilitates strong news. In the case of the Ice Cream Division team, it appears the team was displaying a lack o f candor by not sharing vituperative information, or generating ideas which could result in a real debate. Part of candor is feedback. As a leader, it is critical to give feedback so each team member understands exactly what has to be done for improvement and where they stand in the organization (Welch, 2005). There are three main benefits of candor harmonise to Welch (2005).First, candor gets battalion into the conversation. More ideas are generated and discussed, and all team members have the opportunity to contribute to generate the best ideas. Candor also increases pelt along since getting deal into the conversation results in immediate debate and discussion which allows a well informed decision to be made. Speed is the second benefit of candor. Finally, candor cuts costs. Openly sharing information, positive and negative, results in a team that can quickly respond to issues that arise. Welchs (2005) third principle focuses on differentiation.Differentiation is a way to man age people and business. The business side of differentiation focuses on how to beat the competition through strategy. The people portion requires a leader to identify the top 20 percent, pith 70 percent, and the fathom 10 percent of performers. The next step is to act on this evaluation. In the case of the Chattanooga Ice Cream Division, the bottom 10 percent would not know where they ranked or why. This riddle ties back into candor. Without sincere conversations regarding goals and performance, an employee has a reduced chance of success.Additionally, the lack of candid conversations does not give the individual an opportunity to improve their performance. Further, in this case study, goals for the team are not clear which does not change people to be successful. The fourth principle is voice and dignity. Charles Moore has a management team that does have a voice, although they use the opportunity to lay blame and hold up themselves rather than focus on solutions. Voice and dignity goes beyond the management team. According to Welch in Winning (2005), most people do not say anything because they feel they cant and they havent been asked.Charles ask to understand the business from every rank and perspective as the company leader. He needs to get into the trenches. The only way to accomplish this is by enabling open, candid conversations throughout the organization. growing a Team Developing a team takes time. This team has been together for four or more than years with little to no achievement. The stage of introductions is past, but in address to the Tuckman model (Tocci, JWI510, W6) the team is in the forming stages. Key attributes of this stage are an ill-defined mission and values, lack of trust, and lack of commitment.To put down an open discussion regarding team dynamics each team member will complete a DiSC assessment and a 360 review. The 360 feedback will include their direct reports, people from within their functional area, people outsi de of their functional area, and every member of the leadership team. After the results have been compiled a coach will be assigned to each team member to review the results and to develop own(prenominal) action plans. After these one-on-one sessions, Charlie should bring the team together to share the results of their DiSC assessment.The purpose of the session is to gain a better ground of each team member in terms of how they prefer to work and why. one time the DiSC assessment is reviewed, each person will be asked to share the 2-3 personal development goals generated from their time with the coach. As the leader, Charles will start first and show his vulnerability. Sharing goals can help team members be accountable to each other. This enables informal peer to peer coaching to help everyone stay committed to the team. The DiSC assessment and the 360 degree feedback contribute to emotional ntelligence.Goleman (2000) defines emotional intelligence as the ability to manage oursel ves and our relationships effectively. Both of these assessments enable each team member to conk more self-aware of their emotions and the jounce on their co-workers. Additionally, these tools give an accurate self-assessment of each persons strengths and limitations. Once each team member understands how they are perceived and their personal DiSC style in relation to others they can begin to make focused improvements on their overall emotional intelligence.Goleman (2000) found that leaders with strengths in a critical mass of six or more emotional intelligence competencies were more effective than peers that did not have similar strengths. These exercises focus on the bottom of Lencionis (2002) pyramid, Absence of Trust. The team should encourage each other to be vulnerable and in turn, support the team members that do show vulnerability. Specific Recommendations for the Team Once the team has completed the DiSC and 360 degree feedback tools, the coaching, and the group sharing t hey are ready to transition their focus to the ability to run a successful business.At this point, the Ice Cream Division does not have a clear mission or vision. To start this process, the team will start a ingest. First, the team must(prenominal) establish an overall mission by understanding the overarching mission of the company. In short, at the executive level, what does the team stand for? Focusing on mission development instead of solving the line of lost business will allow the team to understand what actions they need to take to align the problem solution to the business strategy.According to Welch (2005) a mission answers the question How do we intend to win in this business? Using guidance from Winning (Welch, 2005), the executive team may develop a mission tilt that looks like this The mission of the Chattanooga Ice Cream Division is to become the market leader in Ice cream sales repayable to our focus on exceptional taste, unique flavors, and our commitment to cust omers. Once the mission is established the team will begin to generate a charter. This charter will focus on specific activities required to achieve the mission and vision of the organization.
From the great scientist doubting Thomas Alva Edison marks the birth of the most brilliant inventions of all clock time that has changed the lives of the gentleman race over time. That is the de besides of the photographic equipment that apprize record and dramatic event series of shots accompanied by sound, popularly called doubt picture. By motion picture we mean, ingests or movies. However the real definition covers the television media as a whole, starting from movies, commercials, TV series, to news and the the likes of.For centuries, motion pictures subscribe to represent a great role in influencing the lives of the human population which argon dominating in the mainstream culture. Decades after struggleds decades or maybe year after year from its birth, the transition of motion pictures has evolved as technology continues to reach its numberless summit. From black and white to colored films, blasted with computing machine generated special set up nowa twenty-four h ourss, this has be sleep with a form of entertainment that is continuously patronize.Not exactly do motion pictures offer up entertainment, but withal it chamberpot provide education to the audience. For the great Thomas Alva Edison express that motion picture is deprivation to revolutionize the educational system. Because of this extensive array that films provide this has mark the approach of the film indus sample. There has been no doubt that films atomic number 18 continuously patronized by its consumers. And as the economy film industry booms, there has as well an increase in the category or the variety of films from which consumers eject choose.The types of movies classify by the Motion Picture Research Bureau in 1942 includes Comedies (which can have subtypes such as sophisticated, slapstick, family invigoration, musical), war pictures, mystery and horror pictures, historicals and biographies, fantasies, western pictures, gangster and G-men pictures, serious dra mas, love stories, romantic pictures, socially significant pictures, adventure, live up to pictures, musicals (serious), child star pictures, and (Wild) animal pictures. Others have classified motion pictures harmonize to function.Such classification includes feature films, animated films, documentaries, experimental films, industrial films, and educational films. When movies are classified according to type, this becomes more beneficial to most of the film producers. This is because they could sell out their films easily for their audience knows what to look forward to because it is oftentimes easier to long-familiarize generic films. This types of pictures use a series of repeating optic themes which allows the viewers to understand the collective information regarding characters, piazzas, and overall message of each film.Since audience always expect that there is some element of cheekiness in any film. Technology paved its way to allow figure for such films to have gener ic consistency. In many ways, for historians, thinking approximately genre can expose what might have been ideologically familiar to viewers in a time period, and also what they might have perceived as daring or unfamiliar. Every film documents the historical accounts in a genre where throng can relate themselves because this is what is accident in their society.Such example is the motion picture during the period where the historied scientist Thomas Alva Edison lives up to the present genre of motion pictures in computer age. Films indeed mark every course of the worlds hi invoice. present-day(a) films starting from the 1930s up to the 1960s were films which covers the historical events that took place during those times. Films like Casablanca (released in 1942) and Gone with the twisting (released in 1939) retells the history of the Nazi violation (in Casablanca) and the American Civil War (in Gone with the Wind).These 2 films reflect the social condition of the mint durin g the Nazi-invasion and during the American Civil War. Casablanca The people living among 1930s to 1960s can easily relate to Casablanca for the setting of the story was during the Second World War. Casablanca is a story that revolves most ferment Blaine who is a bitter, cynical American, owner of ricks Cafe Americain. The nightclub/casino attracts a mixed clientele of Vichy French and Nazi officials, refugees and thieves.Although Rick professes not to stick out his neck to everybody, he dormant manages to help those who are in need and involves himself to people like Ugarte. Ugarte killed two German couriers to give rise the letter of transit which is a passport to travel freely around German-controlled Europe and to neutral Portugal, and from there to the United States. And because everybody wants to shunning the hostilities of Europe, Ugarte plans to make a fortune out of the letter. However, before he tries to do so he was arrested and was killed under the command of unde r the command of Captain Louis Renault.Not knowingly, Ugarte had entrusted the letters to Rick. All the bitterness in Ricks love involution would flashback when his ex-lover Ilsa arrives with her husband Victor, a Czech Resistance leader, to buy the letters. The needs to go to America so that Victor can continue his work. However, Laszlo is eyed by German Major Strasser. Laszlo as advised by Signor Ferrari, meets with Rick privately to get the letters, however Rick refuses to give the letters and supplicate for Ilsa instead. Interrupted by Strassers group who led to sing the German patriotic song, Laszlo was infuriated.Then Laszlo tells the house band to play the French theme anthem. Rick allowed the band to play the song which lead Strasser to order Renault to culmination the club. Rick refuses Ilsa to give the documents even though he was threatened by her. And then Ilsa confesses that she still loves Rick, explaining why she had left Rick without explanation that day in Paris and Return to Laszlo. After hearing the whole detail, Rick agrees to help, leading her to believe that she will stay behind with him when Laszlo leaves.From the story totally it appears that Casablanca was really loved by many people because the movie shows the hardships of the people during World War II. The film also tries to show how people desperately want to get out of Europe to seek an orderly life in America. The film also shows that because the Nazi ceased all trades in Europe, these people living in Casablanca have to resort to black market in order to survive. Moreover the film centralizes its theme to the myth of dedicate. The idea of sacrifice reassures the audience of this time who were caught in distraught during the war.The love triangle in the movie represents the emotional struggle of a woman caught between two men has given an entertaining value for the film. Gone with the Wind some other contemporary movie that is another prototype of Casablanca is Gone with t he Wind. Gone with the Wind is a story of a difficult woman Scarlett O Hara who is conjectural to be an heir of a large cotton plantation until the American Civil War came. Scarlett falls in love with Ashley Wilkes however Ashley is hopelessly in love with his cousin Melanie whom he proposes to marry.When Scarlett heard the news she also got married to Ashleys comrade but then she became widow as her husband died in the war. On the other side of the story Rhett exactlyler, a careman and a visitor in Tara was attracted to Scarlett however Scarlett never entertains the idea. During the war Scarlett serves as a nurse in the refuge of soldiers who gets wounded in the fight. And as things get worst, Rhett Butler was there to help and sends Scarlett to her home in Tara together with Melanie.As the life in Tara gets harder because of the Civil War and Yankees try to get all the pieces of land they could get in the South. Scarlett decided to go to Rhett and ask Rhett to help her. Howeve r Rhett turned Scarlett down and so Scarlett went to the fertile lover of one of her sisters and professes her love. Soon she remarries and got rich again. She started managing a timber business together with Ashley. Not long enough Scarlett became a widow for the due south gear time and soon she got married to Rhett.They have a child named Bonnie, but still they were fighting for Scarlett was so insistent on not having a child again. Rhett thought that all of this has something to do with her love for Ashley so they became marooned for a while. A tragic incident happen when Scarlett lost her second child and Bonnie. Scarlett realized how much he loved Rhett and professes her love to him. But Rhett still decided to leave her. Gone with the Wind was loved by many people for they can relate to War movies at that time likewise with Casablanca.People were entertained because they could easily put themselves into the character and into the situation where they live. The element of lo ve story in the film tries to show that we should still be hopeful amidst tragic event for as Scarlett O Hara said in the finale tomorrow is another day. Love can never be lost in every war for it is where sacrifices and hopes come from. People enjoyed watching those films that time for film is the only form of escape from the reality of life. Despite the war people can think that they can still love no matter how hard life is.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
consolidate life is a prestigious insurance caller-out however, due to the nature of the establishment the duties essential by the oeuvreer neither required minimal knowledge nor did you have to have a high gear level education in order to obtain a typeset at the go with. Mr. mike Wilson however, obtained a business degree in administration. He was hired by Consolidated Life as simply as you shtup put a clerical wreaker. He worked in the policy issue department which main duties included processing or in taking clients orders for insurance, customer ser debility, and client services.One would say that working for them your writ of execution required little to no creativity. It was the same day-to-day work load. Because it required so little creativity, daily routines were repetitive and flock be make fundamentally, with your hands tied to you back. mike Wilson demonstrated how an effective a threeer can be in the workforce alternatively than bonnie a manager by titl e. He portrayed in macrocosm of high fidelity which is the best experience you can have in a workplace.In the book Trade Off, by Author Kevin Maney, the volume fidelity deals with the total experience of well-nighthing (Maney, 2009). The author also says that aura can also provides an advantage to fidelity. With that be said Mr. Wilson influenced his co-workers with providing them with incentives and rewards in which they can get together a reward at the end of the delegate but approximately importantly he provided the right tools and motivations in order for his employees to work in a positive mind frame.This created a system of mutual bipartisanship amidst supervisor and employee. Model based on the Organizational Model port mikes drive and motivation can be corresponding to a person with theory y attributes. The theory Y judgment displays how an employees work is as natural as play. excessively a person with this characteristic has a huge sense of self-reliance an d self-control. Mr. Wilson showed this by cultivating a modern way technique that motivated its workers or else than coerced them which a person who you can place in this.Whereas, a person with the characteristics of theory x carries the opposite attr natural actions. The individual is not experiencen as impatient about their job. They are mainly threatened or told do it or else and as stated before, want the ability and drive to overachieve. They usually assume the motto, overpromise-under deliver. mikes performance ultimately won him a promotion working in the supervisory as subscribe toment area. He won this promotion just sixer weeks after promise. mike brought a sense of modern culture although it was seen as unorthodox or non-traditional.When comparing the delegation of authority in the levels of management the organic law structure clearly shows that the establishment followed an authority oriented architectural plan in which Presidents are first to make decisions for the overall vision for the company in which it then trickles down to the VP who implements the Presidents strategy by orchestrating a staff of supervisors to oversee the execution. Situation There attends to be a drastic change to the family in which mike supervised some time ago.When Mike realized his unhappiness at his new division he sought a remedy for disaster by go to his old division forcing him under new terms and most importantly, a new boss. The performance value of his once over exceeding staff was now dwindled and unmotivated. The new way in which they worked became stricter and more inflexible. It was stale and in that location was no aura of high fidelity universe promoted. Problems The problem of this drive has to do with mis-delegation of roles and mis-clarification for all parties. Not scarce that, the fact is the company as a whole has not identified its mission statement for their employees.With that being said the modulation from the time Mike re maining became a tragedy. As stated before, the culture of the environment was slated after Mike left. It became from being a collegial environment to an commanding environment once new vice presidentJack Greely took over. Not only did he change the environment of the company, he basically dismantled the structure and rebuilt it based on his power. Until Mike was promoted the managerial style approach was not identified and supervisors, at this early time treasured a change and thats why Mike was chosen to snuff it supervisor.However, when Jack took Mikes former supervisors place, the organization became, autocratic. An autocratic person can be defined as an employee that is dependent tot tally on a supervisor. This person has no other desire than to do what is only required out of the task and only the minimum. Usually in an autocratic setting the boss expects utter(a) obedience from their employees and rely straight on authority from higher(prenominal) ups with no regard to an y self-drive for themselves and lacks the qualities and abilities to propose on initiatives and providing an entrepreneurial attitude about themselves.This can be informed by using the Abraham Maslows Theory found in an essay denomination written by Janet Simmons, Donald Irvin, and Beverly Drinnien which it states he says accordingly that the only reason that lot would not move well in direction of self-actualization is because of hindrances placed in their way by society (Janet A. Simons, 1987). Also saying We must see that the persons basic involve are satisfied. This includes safety, be farseeingingness, and esteem needs (Janet A. Simons, 1987)A person in the Consolidated Life organization that can be also skewed towards the autocratic style is Mr.Rick Belkner. Mikes former boss. This, for lack of a better term, lazy supervisor (whom he was Mikes supervisor initially) illustrated as a person who rather do crossword puzzles during his work shift then to lead by example, what a competent Vice President of their division shy 40,000 of a six-figure salary. The point was clearly made by Mr. Greely when he assumed that Mikes management style would still be undermined no weigh how good of his performance. He even went to the extent of assuring that Mr. Wilson will run short no matter how high you move up in the establishment. It is almost agreeable to say that Mr.Speelys choose of words were not only rude but shows a poor and ineffective leader. Mr. Greely does not seem to be results-driven but ego-driven as his defense for Mikes work style was inarguable and measured his own assumption to Mikes performance rather than just judging an employee on what he does best, his/her performance. interpreting how Mike handled it amazingly enough. In the chart featured on page-You can see simple comparing of the two different types of behavioral patterns by identifying the qualities, organizational and environmental forces that are represented by the 2 behavior patter ns.You will see the differences between a workers operating in an autocratic setting versus a person who operates under the collegial or substantiative setting(s). By identifying the contrast you are able to see what kind of modifications or structures that would have to be put in place based on a employees attitude. The attitude in which comes from probably stems from personal goal, motivations, or self desires a person may have in their work space. Some individuals dont possess the willingness to achieve and be a leader.Some individual are quite happy with just being an average worker and moving up in the corporate latter(prenominal) is something that does not motivate them. Autocratic surround Vs. Collegial /System Environment Base Questions for Case 1. Describe ALL the factors that contributed to Mikes lack of promotion at the end. Was his lack of promotion fair? When Mike left the division, he left the process in which he created, to be altered by the new president upon his d eparture. The flexible leadership that led to the squad success came to a halt when divisional vice president, Jack Greely whos reputation was described as tough but fair.Mike accepted the position at the old division again without actually investigating the provisions in which he was now to work under. He loss total control when he noticed that co-workers were actually more inclined to follow Mr. Greelys direction because the employees knew the order of hierarchy and knew the consequences of action should one follow anyones demands except for Mr. Greelys. 2. Using your knowledge of culture, explain in detail Consolidated Lifes culture when Mike was first hired and then when he returned.There was a transition in the organization which proved to have opportunities due to the position void. much(prenominal) example shows that Mike (when he was first hired by Consolidated Life) he was promoted to his position because of the opportunities of change. Mikes style was not unfeignedly f avored by his higher-ups but because he manages to increase workflow and subject errors, which created more performance his flexible style was overlook which sends a sign of inconsistency. If you are going to allow a manager to collide with over the project then let them take over.As long as they dont compromise the integrity of the company or do anything illegal. 3. What actions could Consolidated Life have taken to prevent Mikes problems? There should have been more flexibility granted for Mike to effectively coordinate his team. Mr. Wilsons track record clearly shows that as a supervisor he is competent to make educated decisions and lead a staff with ease. An employee is always happy when they are not pressured nor stressed. virtually important of all, when a leader shows reciprocity, more than likely there would be a win-win.For Example, Mikes strategy to reward his co-workers in swop for hard work showed the worker was not working out of trivial and in fact he/she was bei ng acknowledged and rewarded for the hard efforts being put forth. 4. Who do you think was at fault for Mikes problems, Mike or his supervisors (e. g. , Jack) or others? Completely justify your opinion. The fault of Mike problems was his free spirited style which usually offends conservatives. Jack implemented a corporate style setting upon Mikes return.
Zappos faces Competitive AdvantagesChapter 16/9/13Zappos is an online retailer that has found its business on 10 plaza values that befriend successfully run their business. The caller is known for their culture. They feel that culture evaluate how the employees will perform their pipeline functions. The questions below will define what challenges they will face when competitive challenges intervene. 1. Zappos seems to be well-positioned to check a competitive advantage over some other online retailers. What challenges discussed in Chapter 1 pose the biggest threat to Zappos ability to maintain and raise its competitive position? How can human resource management practices help Zappos meet these challenges?Although Zappos is well-positioned to have a competitive advantage over other online retailers one of the biggest threats in my opinion that they will face is globalization. I govern this because from the reading Zappos use competitive pricing. However, in foreign markets p roducts have a cheaper price and their shipping rates vary. Therefore, Zappos wouldnt be able to quip their free shipping if they were to relocate into global markets.Another challenge they are likely to have pose on their business if they enter into international markets is sustainability. Sustainability basically goes hand in hand with globalization because they would have to be able to adapt to the change when entering into these markets. For example, the economy is changing prevalent throughout the United States and internationally with how businesses run. With the pricing in these markets going international is going to also affect how their business will successfully run. tender resource practices can help meet these challenges by helping go into the right employees to still promote the vision that Zappos currently hold. They can do this by interviewing through assessment testing to make sure they have the skills and requirements for the position of which they apply. Also , these practices if performed correctly can help them inevaluating the environment in which they choose to locate internally as well as outwardly so that their business practices are performed.2. Do you think that employees of Zappos have high school levels of engagement? Why?I believe that Zappos demonstrates a well sedulous employee relationship within the company. I say this because any company that run throughs the condemnation to have outside lunches with the staff in order to hear the variant ideas that they have come up with, believes in a satisfied actor and work environment. Many companies in todays society solitary(prenominal) listen when a complaint is made over their 1800 hotline. Zappos actually take the time out and listen to every complaint of their employees individually.3. Which of Zappos 10 core values do you believe that human resource practices can bias the almost? The least? Why? For each of the core values, identify the HR practices that are think to it. Explain how each of the HR practice(s) you identified is related to the core values.I believe that human resource practices could influence the most is Zappos customer service. Customer service is needed throughouCore Values1. economize Wow through service Sustainability2. Embrace and drive change3. ready fun and a little weirdnessSustainability4. Be adventurous, creative, and open mindSustainability 5. Pursue growth and learning-6. Build open and honest relationships with communionSustainability 7. Build a positive team and family spiritTechnology8. Do more with lessSustainability9. Be passionate and determinedSustainability10. Be low-downSustainability
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2008 University of South Africa solely rights reserved Printed and create by the University of South Africa Muckleneuk, Pretoria CMH2602/1/20092011 98316532 (iii) __________________________________ __________________________________ Contents WELCOME AND base (vii) de segmentation 1 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS IN COMM unit of measurementY HEALTH 1 education whole 1 2 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 1. 8 1. 9 CONCEPTS AND THEORIES/MODELS IN biotic comp any(prenominal)(prenominal) HEALTH sisterry Theoretical thinking as a langu suppurate Choosing a administration/ stumper to present to fellowship intimatelyness The symmetrys simulation of conjunction wellness c ar for Orems self- anguish dearth theory of fellateNeumans placements good exampleling/theory Penders wellness publicity feign Gordons oper fit wellness conventionalism framework final yield 2 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 PART 2 THE hotshot(a) AND FAMILY AS CLIENT 13 LEARNING UNIT 2 14 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 2. 8 2. 9 2. 10 demonstration Defining the c oncept of family grammatical construction of the family Types of families decimal points of family schooling The family as sociable system Cultural values in the family Family functions Roles of the family Conclusion LEARNING UNIT 3 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 3. 6 3. 7 3. 8 3. 9 3. 10 3. 11 THE FAMILY AS CLIENT ASSESSING FAMILY HEALTH demonstrationAssessment of the family The bio tangible proportionality The mental considerations The bodily surroundingsal considerations The socio- heathenish dimension The behavioral considerations The wellness system considerations Diagnostic think and the family as a lymph node Planning, implementation and evaluation Conclusion 14 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 21 21 23 23 23 25 25 27 28 30 31 31 31 32 (iv) LEARNING UNIT 4 INFANTS FROM BIRTH TO 18 MONTHS 4. 1 sub expression 4. 2 Definition of electric s give upr wellness 4. 3 Growth and k right awayledge during infancy 4. 4 lea rningal tasks 4. 5 Infant nutrition 4. 6 Cognitive-perceptual convenings . 7 Child abuse 4. 8 Stress in infancy 4. 9 morbid carry outes 4. 10 Immunisation 4. 11 Conclusion 34 34 34 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 41 LEARNING UNIT 5 THE TODDLER (1836 MONTHS) 5. 1 Introduction 5. 2 get along and physical changes 5. 3 Nutrition in toddlers 5. 4 Elimination and exercise samples 5. 5 Sleep and rest variant 5. 6 Cognitive-perceptual designing 5. 7 Self-perception-self- innovation human body, functions- family relationships pattern, child abuse, sexuality-reproductive pattern, coping with stress, and values and beliefs 5. 8 Pathological processes 5. 9 Social processes 5. 10 Conclusion 43 43 43 44 44 44 45LEARNING UNIT 6 THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD 6. 1 Introduction 6. 2 Age and physical changes 6. 3 Cognitive-perceptual patterns 6. 4 Self-perception-self-concept pattern, social occasions-relationships pattern, sexuality-reproductive pattern, coping-stress pattern and values-beliefs pattern 6. 5 Pathological processes 6. 6 Social processes 6. 7 Conclusion 48 48 48 49 LEARNING UNIT 7 THE SCHOOL-AGE CHILD 7. 1 Introduction 7. 2 Age and physical changes 7. 3 Cognitive-perceptual pattern 7. 4 Self-perception-self-concept pattern, roles-relationships pattern, sexuality-reproductive pattern, coping-stress pattern and values-beliefs pattern 7. Pathological processes and social processes 7. 6 Conclusion 52 52 52 53 LEARNING UNIT 8 THE ADOLESCENT 8. 1 Introduction 8. 2 Age and physical changes Gordons functional health patterns 8. 3 Gordons functional health patterns in c plys 8. 4 Pathological processes in the teenager 8. 5 Social processes 8. 6 Conclusion 56 56 56 57 58 59 59 45 46 46 46 49 50 50 51 54 55 55 (v) LEARNING UNIT 9 GENDER HEALTH 9. 1 9. 2 9. 3 9. 4 9. 5 9. 6 9. 7 Introduction The condition of women Womens health status The lesbian/gay, bisexual and trans gender (LGBT) thickening mens health statusThe epidemiology of health for gay, bisexual and transgender me n Conclusion LEARNING UNIT 10 CARE OF THE CLIENT IN THE WORK SETTING 10. 1 10. 2 10. 3 10. 4 10. 5 Introduction The objectives of occupational health The occupational health check ass s sleep together of practice nursing cargon of functional populations Conclusion LEARNING UNIT 11 THE OLDER ADULT 11. 1 11. 2 11. 3 11. 4 11. 5 11. 6 11. 7 11. 8 11. 9 11. 10 11. 11 11. 12 11. 13 11. 14 11. 15 11. 16 Introduction Age and physical changes Goals of health progress ground level of health perception-health wieldment Nutritional metabolic patternElimination pattern Activity-exercise pattern Sleep-rest pattern Cognitive-perceptual pattern Self-perception-self-concept pattern Roles-relationships pattern Sexuality-reproductive pattern Coping-stress tolerance pattern and values-beliefs pattern Pathological processes Social processes Conclusion 60 60 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 66 67 68 68 69 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 PART 3 THE COMMUNITY AS CLIENT 75 LEARNING UNIT 12 HEALTH progress IN THE COMMUNITY 76 12. 1 12. 2 12. 3 12. 4 12. 5 12. 6 12. 7 12. 8 12. 9 12. 10 12. 11 12. 12 Introduction Definition of a fellowshipDefining the term participation health The company as a customer Goals of community-oriented practice Strategies for improving community health Community partnerships Community-foc employ treat process Planning Implementation Evaluation Conclusion 76 76 77 77 77 79 79 79 80 81 83 83 (vi) LEARNING UNIT 13 INTERVENTIONS FOR HEALTH PROMOTION IN THE FAMILY 13. 1 13. 2 13. 3 13. 4 13. 5 13. 6 13. 7 13. 8 13. 9 Introduction Definitions of health promotion Interventions for health promotion The purpose of health education The health educator Principles for health education Implementation of the educational planEvaluation of the educational process Conclusion LEARNING UNIT 14 ISSUES IN COMMUNITY HEALTH 14. 1 14. 2 14. 3 14. 4 14. 5 14. 6 14. 7 14. 8 Introduction Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids) Tuberculosis (TB) Poverty Homelessness Violence Community resources Conclusion 84 84 84 85 85 86 88 89 89 90 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY 98 ANNEXURE A FEEDBACK FOR SCENARIO IN LEARNING UNIT 3 ? LEARNING UNITS 412 99 ANNEXURE B FACTS ABOUT IMMUNISATION 106 ANNEXURE C THE REVISED spread out PROGRAMME ON IMMUNISATION IN SOUTH AFRICA (EPI-SA) SCHEDULE 08 ANNEXURE D PLANS TO ADD TWO NEW VACCINES TO PREVENT PNEUMONIA AND DIARRHOEA IN BABIES cx ANNEXURE E PRIVATE VACCINES SCHEDULE 111 (vii) Welcome and ____________________________ introduction ____________________________ Welcome to this second-level module on health in communities. You provide learn round the concepts and theories/ work outs regard in community health to equip you with a abstractive foundation for this module. The aim of this module is to equip you with noticeledge astir(predicate) the tone orthodontic braces of the individual in order to give you skills to work with families in the community.You go outside(a) as well as gain a holistic onset towards critical issues in the community. You should grow and develop into a competent and skilful practiti wholenessr who stern identify ask and lines relating to family health and respond to them in an innovative way. operative d unity this module will enrich your sustenance non tho professionally, except as well as individualally. The nature of this test pull back This study repoint has been designed in an interactive way with the aim of guiding you by means of 2 prescribed take fors. As you work through this study use up you should integrate the acquisition in the study guide with the information in your prescribed books.The Internet has a wealth of information and you be cognizant to use the Internet as oft as possible to go your knowledge on trusted topics. Prescribed books You be expected to buy the following prescribed books for this module Clark, MJ. 2008. Community health nursing protagonism for population health. 5th edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall. Edelman, CL & Mandle, CL. 2006. Health promotion through the lifespan. 5th edition. St Louis Mosby. Edelman and Mandle (2006) has precise valu equal information on health promotion and covers the entire life span, from birth to final stage.In addition to your study guide, this book is very classical you will find a wealth of information. Clark (2008) is a book on community health nursing that emphasises the dimensions role computer simulation of community health nursing right through. This is a very valuable model which will aid you to gain a holistic and systematic near towards the individual, family and community. (viii) The information in these 2 books is complementary. Together with the study guide it will help you to gain the knowledge and skills you will claim to supply health explosive charge to individuals, families and communities.Activities The activities be planned to either reinforce content, to guide you to tackle upcoming content, or to motivate you to think about issues. You will note that in part 2 of the study guide t present is only champion activity at the end of distributively learning unit here we want you to apply the dimensions model of community health to a appendage of the family. Feedback on all these activities will be given in annexure A. This CMH2602 module runs parallel with the practice module for Community Health, CMH2126. The theory send packingnot be separated from the practice. IconsYou will find a series of icons in the text to guide you as you progress with your studies. Activity When you hit this icon, you will know that you must(prenominal) complete an activity. We may ask you to read a unique(predicate) atom in the prescribed literature, apply given information, think about topics that consent not been introduced, find your deliver information or ask opposite large number for information. Please read the instructions copefully. Assessment criteria This icon designates the questions that you washbasin use to assess your own understanding of the work. These questions are admited from the outcomes.You are told what you should do to prove that you hand over met the learning outcomes. Prescribed culture When you see this icon, study or read the prescribed book as destined, in the world-class place continuing with the next section. Learning outcome This icon tells you how you will hit in the field of practice if you know the content of the specific learning unit. The outcomes tell you what you will be able to do afterwards you have studied the work. h Feedback This icon tells you what was expected from you when you did the activity. It will not inescapably give you all the facts but will give you guidelines on how to assist the question.Not all of the activities will have feedback because umteen of the answers are given in your prescribed books. (ix) Conclusion This module is designed to enable you to work with families in the community. It is prepare on the involve and problems of the family. It covers individuals who are part of the family and the family as part of the community. After completion of this module, together with the practice module, you will be able to take business for practising as an independent community foster in any community setting. PART 1 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS IN COMMUNITY HEALTH 2 Learning unit 1Concepts and theories/ models in community health Outcomes Since theories/models provide you with the knowledge you collect to employment community health in a scientific way, it is essential for you to be familiar with the various theories/models in the field to be able to apply them to community health. When you have worked through this learning unit you will be able to * * * * 1. 1 outline various concepts in theoretical thinking condone selected theories/models in item strike the key concepts and themes of the selected theories/models apply the theories/models to community healthIntroduction While we will contend theories/models in public in this learning unit, we will besides heap with several selected theories in more depth in order to indicate how they kitty be utilise to community health. It is currently take uped that theories form the basis of community health. Since theories provide us with the knowledge we need to dress community health in a scientific way, it is essential for the community nurse to be familiar with the various theories/models in the field and to be able to apply them to community health. 1. 2 Theoretical thinking as a languageThe terms theory, model, conceptual framework, conceptual model are often use synonymously in literature. The literature reflects various conflicting opinions about the terms, their usage and meaning. According to Polit and Beck (2008141) a conceptual model or a conceptual framework represents a more informal mechanism for organising and reasoning phenomena or con cepts, while theories are more formal in nature. Conceptual theories, frameworks and models are composed of concepts or constructs. These concepts or constructs are interdependent because they systematically certify the relationship amid variables.A model is a symbolic representation of concepts or variables with an interrelationship. A phenomenon is the get up concept under study, often 3 used by qualitative researchers, while a concept is a verbal description of the objects or suits that form the basis of a theory. Both models and theories brush aside disembowel and predict the relationship between phenomena. Models and theories are terms that are often used interchangeably in literature. The term theory is often used to refer to the subject content that student nurses must be taught in the lecture room to acquire the information they need to perform the nursing tasks in practice.Researchers such(prenominal)(prenominal) as Polit and Beck (2008768) define theory as an abstra ct generalisation that presents a systematic explanation about the relationships among phenomena. Theories accommodate principles for explaining, predicting and haughty phenomena. In all disciplines theories serve the same purpose. This purpose is to make scientific findings meaningful, and to make it possible to generalise. A theory is composed of concepts and constructs that are systematically link upd and that are overly goal-oriented (Stanhope & Lancaster 2006196). Types of conventional theories acknowledge grand theories and middle-range theories.Grand theories describe and explain large segments of the world experience which are very broad. Middle-range theories explain more specific phenomena such as stress, self- mission, health promotion and infant attachment. Metatheory is a term used to label theory about the theoretical process and theory development (Polit & Beck 2008141). Metaparadigm refers to the main concepts that identify the phenomena or ideas of gratify t o a discipline, in this campaign the discipline of nursing. They provide the boundaries for the subject subject area of the discipline.The metaparadigm concepts for nursing let in person, environment, health and nursing (Clark 200867). However, current literature suggests that a tetrad-concept metaparadigm for the discipline of nursing is too limited and suggests additional concepts such as transitions, interaction, nursing process, nursing therapeutics, self-care, adaptation, interpersonal relationships, goal attainment, caring, life force fields, human nice and opposite concepts. The best-known and most used concepts are however the source four person, environment, health and nursing. 1. 3 Choosing a theory/model to apply to community ealth Choosing a suitable theory or model is not always an easy task ? especially when most theories are accommodate towards the care of individuals and were never designed to apply to groups or communities. The theory or model that is elect must be flexible enough to be adapted to the community health situation and its aim must be to provide guidance for those who practise community health. The importance of the family or community network and the social network must both be all the way reflected, and the theory or model must be realistic and unsophisticated enough to understand and apply.In addition, the theory/model should harmonise with the community nurses views about the individual, the environment, personal health and community health. You may find that the theory that is elect may not always fulfil all your expectations and that it may withal not be applicable to all circumstances. You may often be required to make adjustments or to develop your own personal model on the basis of existing theories. 4 Activity exempt why community health nursing should be base on a model or theory. h Feedback You should have considered the following points * * * * * 1. 4A systematic approach is needed. Theories/models assist community nurses to treasure health status and to plan, implement and evaluate effective nursing care. The model/theory used directs attention to applicable aspects of the client situation and to take into account interventions. Epidemiologic models help in examining factors that work out health and illness. Nursing models suggest interventions to protect, improve and restore health. The dimensions model of community health nursing Clarks (200869) dimensions model of community health nursing is one of the few models designed for community health.This model is described in incident proposition in your prescribed book (Clark 2008) and will therefore only be summarised here. This model is a revision of the previously titled Epidemiologic bar Process Model. The dimensions model incorporates the nursing process and the levels of prevention as well as an epidemiologic perspective on the factors influencing health and illness. The dimensions model consists of 3 elements the dimens ions of health, the dimensions of health care and the dimensions of nursing. The dimensions of health allow in * * * * * * the the the the the he biophysical dimension psychological dimension physical environmental dimension socio-cultural dimension behavioural dimension health system dimension The dimensions of health care include * * * primordial prevention secondary prevention tertiary prevention The dimensions of nursing include * * * * cognitive dimension interpersonal dimension ethical dimension skills dimension 5 * * process dimension reflective dimension You should study this model to enable you to assess the health status of individuals, families or communities and to guide your nursing interventions.Prescribed book as sure chapter 4 in Clark (2008, or later editions), on the dimensions model of community health nursing. Activity (1) unalikeiate the terzetto elements of the dimensions model of community health nursing. (2) constitute the dimensions included in each e lement. (3) send an example related to the dimensions in each element that addresses the health of a population group. 1. 5 Orems self-care famine theory of nursing Orem proposes a general theory of nursing which she calls the theory of self-care myopicfall. Orems theory focuses on sights mightiness to practise self-care.The dominant theme of her philosophy of health is that people should be authorise and encouraged to practise their own self-care by means of their own efforts or with the help of signifi faecest new(prenominal)s. Orems self-care deficit theory of nursing consists of three interconnected theories the theory of selfcare, the theory of self-care deficit and the theory of nursing systems. This theory is concordant with community health, based on the following premises * * * Individuals and groups must accept responsibility for their own health and consequently care for themselves.The community nurse should provide the inevitable training and conduct that will enable individuals or communities to do this. The community nurse should intervene only when a deficit or need arises in the selfcare framework. The World Health Organization (WHO) also strongly emphasises that self-care and selfresponsibility play an important role in achieving the goal of optimal health. 1. 5. 1 system of self-care In order to understand the theory of self-care, one must first understand the concepts of self-care, self-care room, basic conditioning factors and therapeutic self-care demand.Self-care include those activities and decisions which a person undertakes in order to maintain life, health and well-being. These activities are acquired by learning, and they contribute to the concern of human development and functioning. 6 Self-care agency refers to the ability of a person to exercise self-care in daily life. The ability to care for oneself is affected by basic conditioning factors age, gender, developmental narrate, health state, socio-cultural factors, health care system factors, family system factors, patterns of living, environmental factors and resource adequacy and availability.Therapeutic self-care demand is the sum total of the measures which are called for at a particular meter for the promotion and maintenance of health, development and general well-being. In the case of self-care, purposeful actions and steps are taken. Although selfcare should benefit an individuals health, his or her perception of self-care may not always promote good health, as is the case with a person who smokes in the belief that it reduces his or her stress levels. Self-care requisites refer to the reasons for which self-care is undertaken.The three categories of self-care requisites include universal, developmental, and health deviation. Universal self-care requirements include those processes which are essential for the linguistic rule functioning and maintenance of health and life, such as the following processes * * * * * * having and maint aining able fresh air/oxygen, water and food intake finding the correspondence between exercise and rest, and having social interaction avoiding dangers and obstacles that can compromise human functioning and well-being promoting human functioning and development in a group roviding care associated with elimination processes and personal hygiene keeping a balance between being alone and social interaction developmental self-care requisites are divided into two categories * * The first concerns the maintenance of those conditions which are well-heeled to a persons normal growth and development. The second is concerned with the prevention of those minus conditions, forces, gos and factors which can hinder and obstruct normal development. Awareness of such requirements reflects a persons level of development and his or her general capacity for self-care.Health deviation self-care is necessary for preventing illness, injury and retardation. It involves taking whatever steps are nec essary for preventing or treating illness or disability effectively. The requisites for health deviation self-care include * * * * * * want and securing appropriate medical assistance being conscious of and attending to the cause and results of pathologic conditions conducting medically prescribed diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitative measures attending to or controlling the negative effects of prescribed medical treatment effectively ccepting oneself as being in a specific state of health and in need of particular forms of health care developing and sustaining health-optimising lifestyles 1. 5. 2 Theory of self-care deficit The theory of self-care deficit forms the core of Orems general theory of nursing. According to this theory, an liberal who is unable to practise self-care requires dependent care this refers to an adult who does not have the ability to meet his or her own needfully or 7 only has partial ability to take care of himself or herself. This may happen or e xample when a person falls ill and this illness generates youthful demands, requiring the implementation of complex measures and specialize knowledge. Orem cites the following examples of support or help which can be offered in such circumstances * * * * * acting on behalf of a person or undertaking certain activities for this person until he or she can once again care for himself or herself more singly providing guidance and oversight in the new situation providing physical and psychological support creating and maintaining a new environment which supports personal development providing appropriate relevant instructionsA self-care deficit sinks where there is a discrepancy between the need for self-care and the ability to manage this self-care. In such circumstances the individual needs to be aided and educated to administer whatever self-care he or she may need. In short, a self-care deficit occurs when a person is unable to practise appropriate self-care on his or her own o r without external assistance. 1. 5. 3 Theory of nursing systems The theory of nursing systems consists of two components the nursing agency, and nursing systems.The nursing agency refers to the characteristics of people who are trained as nurses that enable them to act, to know and to help former(a)s meet their therapeutic self-care demands by developing their own self-care agency. Nursing systems are created when nurses use their knowledge and skills to plan and implement nursing care where there are deficiencies in self-care. The aim of intervention by the nurse is to constitute for the self-care activities which the individual, family or community cannot maintain at an optimal level. These compensatory activities are classified into * * *The wholly compensatory system where the community nurse becomes the self-care agent to compensate for the clients inability to maintain his or her own self-care. The community nurse cares for and supports the client wholly. For example, this w ould happen where a person is in a coma and cannot consciously look after himself or herself. The partly compensatory system where the client is suitable of certain self-care measures but only to a limited degree. The aim of health care intervention is to lend support and carry out certain activities on behalf of the client until he or she is able to resume them again.The supportive/educational system where the client can manage self-care but needs the support and guidance of the community nurse. The community nurse regulates the selfcare agents performance and development so that he or she can function more independently (George 2002126). Activity (1) Describe the different components of the self-care deficit theory of nursing. 8 (2) Explain what is meant by a self-care deficit. (3) A mother and her two-month-old sis visit your clinic. The baby is not gaining sufficient weight and the mother appears tired and stressed. Identify the self-care deficit in this particular case. h Fee dbackYou should have covered the following points in your answer (1) The mother is not able to care for herself with the demands of a new baby. (2) She therefore needs health education and ad valetudinarianism on how to handle the situation. 1. 6 Neumans systems model/theory According to Neuman, her personal philosophy of helping each other come through contributed to development of the holistic systems perspective of the her systems model. Neumans theory is based on * * the two main components of stress and the individual or his or her bodys reaction to that stress the communitys reaction to certain stress factors (stressors) in the environmentNeuman based her systems model on a general systems theory and regards the client as an open system which reacts to stressors in the environment. Stressors may be intra-personal, inter-personal or extra-personal. Intra-personal stressors occur within the client system boundary and correlate with the versed environment (eg feelings such as a nxiety or anger within a person). Inter-personal stressors occur outside the client system boundary and have an conflict on the system (eg stimuli between people such as role expectations). Extrapersonal stressors also occur outside the ystem boundaries, but are further away from the system than the inter-personal stressors (eg work or finances). Environment includes all the external and internal influences that surround the client system. The external environment exists outside the client system and the internal environment exists within the client system * * * * The client system contains a basic structure or core construct (individual, family community) which is defend by lines of resistance. The basic structure includes system variables such as physiological, psychological, socio-cultural, developmental and spiritual variables.Penetration of the basic structure results in death. The normal level of health is identified as the normal line of demurral which refers to the client s usual state of wellness and represents stability over duration. When the normal line of defence is invaded or penetrated, the client system reacts, for example with symptoms of illness. The flexible line of defence prevents stressors from invade the system and is a dynamic state of wellness that changes over duration. It can for example be altered in a relatively short period of prison term by factors such as inadequate eternal rest or food.The lines of resistance protect the basic structure and become spark off when the normal line of defence is penetrated by environmental stressors. If sufficient energy is 9 * available, the normal line of defence is restored but if the lines of resistance are not effective, death may follow. Reconstitution involves stabilisation of the system and movement back to the normal line of defence. Health care intervention takes place in the prevention modalities, that is the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. (Clark (200867)) Prescribed reading Study Neumans model in Clark (2008, or later editions).Activity (1) (2) (3) (4) Explain what Neuman means by client variables. Describe the concepts of line of resistance and normal line of defence. Describe Neumans view on health. Define the term stressor. This theory/model can also be applied to community health because a preventive approach is followed and because of its flexibility. 1. 7 Penders health promotion model Pender described a model which is applicable to community health in particular. This model is based on principles of health promotion and, to a certain extent, corresponds with the Health Belief Model.Penders health promotion model comprises three basic concepts, namely individual perceptions, variables which can influence healthy behaviour and the probability that actions will be taken to promote health * * * Individual perceptions include factors such as how important health is seen to be, perceptions on control and effectiveness, the definiti on of health, the state of health, the advantages inherent in preventive measures, and possible obstacles. Variables include factors such as demography, income, literacy, culture and family health patterns.The probability that action will take place includes matters such as ? ? ? ? how highly the person rates or values action any previous experience with health personnel the availability and affordability of preventive go the threat that the condition holds for the individual or family Prescribed reading Study Clark (2008, or later editions), the section on Penders health promotion model. 10 Activity (1) Name the variables which can affect the preventive actions that a family and a community may take. (2) Write short notes on individual perceptions and indicate how they can influence health-promoting actions.Penders model is applicable to community health because the promotion of health is taken as the starting point and factors which influence the measures for promoting health are defined and emphasised. The model can guide and lead the community health nurse in promoting health. On the grounds of the variables and perceptions that are identified, she/he can make decisions on the degree of intervention that is necessary. For example a degree of knowledge and motivation may seem necessary to allow the community to take certain promotive actions, or to decide whether or not the available options are acceptable.The community health nurses task could thusly be to give the community the necessary information or to influence them to modify perceptions that are detrimental to their health. Depending on the specific problems or behaviour that deviates from a healthy living pattern, the culture of the community, the level of literacy and so on, the community health nurse can plan a programme or develop his or her own model based on Penders promotive model. (Clark 2008257) 1. 8 Gordons functional health pattern frameworkHistorically, conceptual models in nursing have employed Gordons health-related behaviours and developed them into an sagaciousness model with 11 functional health patterns. Your prescribed book (Edelman & Mandle 2006) uses this framework throughout in the assessment of each developmental stand for. The 11 functional health patterns include * * * * * * * * * * * pattern of health perception-health management nutritional-metabolic pattern elimination pattern activity-exercise pattern sleep-rest pattern cognitive-perceptual pattern self-perception-self-concept pattern roles-relationships pattern sexuality-reproductive pattern oping-stress tolerance pattern values-beliefs pattern (Edelman & Mandle 2006131) see Edelman and Mandle (2006 or later edition), the section on functional health patterns assessment of the individual. 11 1. 9 Conclusion Various theories/models applicable to community health were discussed in this learning unit. It is very important that you as a community health nurse have an understanding of these theorie s/models and how they could be applied to community health. Assessment criteria (1) Define the following terms ? ? ? ? ? theory model conceptual framework phenomenon concept (2) (3) (4) (5) 6) Define the different constructs of Orems theory. Explain the defence mechanism in Neumans theory. Describe the principles on which Penders promotion of health model are based. Name the three elements of the dimensions model of community health nursing. Name the dimensions of the dimension of health in the dimensions model of community health nursing. (7) List the functional health patterns in Gordons functional health pattern framework. transmission line Application of selected models/theories will be assessed in part 2 of the study guide. 12 PART 2 THE INDIVIDUAL AND FAMILY AS CLIENT 14 Learning unit 2The family as client Outcomes When you have worked through this learning unit you will be able to * * * * * * * 2. 1 describe the concept of family describe the structure of the family describe different family types and their characteristic features describe the gifts of family development discuss family functions describe the family as a social system discuss cultural values in the family Introduction The family is the basic social unit in any community. Family members unremarkably make do living arrangements, responsibilities, goals, the continuity of timess, and a sense of belonging and affection.How well a family works together and meets any crisis depends on the composition of the family (the structure), the activities or roles performed by family members (the functioning) and how well the family is able to ready itself against potential threats. 2. 2 Describing the concept of family Clark (2008318) states A family is a composed of two or more persons who are joined by bonds of sharing and delirious closeness and who identify themselves as being part of the family. Unlike those of other social systems, family relationships are characterized by intimacy, aflam e intensity, and persistence over succession. Santrock (2006216) states The family is a social system, a constellation of subsystems defined in terms of generation, gender and role. Divisions of labour among family members define particular sub-units, and attachments define others. from each one family member is a participant in several subsystems. Some are dyadic (involving two people) some polyadic (involving more than two people). Stanhope and Lancaster (2006322) refer to the following definition A family refers to two or more individuals who depend on one some other for emotional, physical, and/or financial support.The members of the family are self-defined. 15 Activity Ask different members of the multi-disciplinary health team to define family. Analyse the responses for similarities and differences. 2. 3 Structure of the family Family structure is the organised pattern or hierarchy of members that determines how they interact. Components of a family structure include the role of each family member and how they complement each other, the familys value system, discourse patterns and power hierarchy. The family structure influences the way that a family functions. Allender & Spradley 2005526) The genogram shows family information graphically in order to view complex family patterns over a period of cartridge holder, usually three generations or more. d. 1956 Heart Peg 71 Housewife Al 72 Grocer Sue Housewife John Steelworker d. 1982 Cancer set up 37 Engineer Jan 36 Housewife Jim 9 Jack 46 Mechanic Mary 16 Pat 41 Waitress matrimonial 1979 Steve 18 Clerk Earl 17 Student Detroit Fig 2. 1 Genogram come Allender & Spradley (2005528) Nan 4 Married 1977 Divorced 1979 Joe 45 Teacher surface-to-air missile 20 Student Lou 13 Los Angeles Married 1983 Ann 39 Nurse Pam 11 16 ActivityDraw a genogram of your own family. 2. 4 Types of families There are many family types and a family type may change over time as it is affected by birth, work, death, divorce and t he growth of family members. * * * * * * * The atomic conjugal family. The traditional nuclear family structure consists of a husband, wife and children. Most young people move away from their stirs when they marry and form nuclear families (no grand boots, aunts or uncles live in the hearth). The nuclear family is found in all ethnic and socio-economic groups, and is original by most religions.Today the number of nuclear families is declining as a result of the increase in divorce, single parenthood and remarriage, the acceptance of alternative lifestyles, and greater disparity. The extended (multi-generational) family. The extended family includes the nuclear family as well as other family members such as grandmothers, grandfathers, aunts, uncles, cousins and grandchildren. The advantage of such a family is that it means more people may serve as resources during crises and also provides more role models for behaviour and learning values. The single parent family. individual pa rent families consist of an adult woman or man and a child or children. Single parent families result from divorce, out-of-wedlock pregnancies, absence or death of a spouse, or adoption by a single person. A health problem in a single parent family is almost always a serious matter, because there is no backup person for childcare when the parent is ill. The blended family. The term blended family refers to a remarriage or a reconstituted family, where a divorced or widowed person with children marries someone who also has children of his or her own.Children of blended families are exposed to different ways of living and also have increased security and resources. They may become more adaptable to new situations. However, rivalry may arise among the children for the attention of a parent or there may be competition with the step-parent for the love of the biologic parent. The communal family. The communal family is made up of groups of people who have chosen to live together as an e xtended family group. Their relationships with each other are motivated by social values or interests rather than by kinship.Because of the number of people present, members may have few set traditional family roles. The values of commune members are often religiously or spiritually based and may be more oriented to discontinuedom and free choice than those of a traditional family structure. The cohabitation family. The cohabiting family consists of two persons who are living together, but remain unmarried. They may be heterosexual or homosexual. Some such relationships are temporary but others are long-lasting. Reasons for cohabitation include the desire for a trial marriage, the increased safety that results from living together and financial factors.The single alliance family. Many single young adults live together in managed apartments, dormitories or homes for companionship and financial security. Although these relationships are often temporary, they have the same characteri stics as cohabitation families. 17 * * The homosexual family. The homosexual family is a form of cohabitation where a same sex couple live together and share a sexual relationship. Such a relationship offers support in times of crisis that is comparable with that offered by a traditional nuclear or cohabitation family. The foster family. Children whose parents are unable to care for them are laced in a foster home by a child auspices agency. Foster parents usually receive remuneration for their care. Foster families may also include the parents own biological or adopted children. Foster care is theoretically temporary until children can be returned to their own parents (Clark 2008318). Prescribed reading Read Clark (2008, or later edition), types of families. 2. 5 Stages of family development Stage 1 Beginning family During this first stage of family development, members work to accomplish three specific tasks * * * to establish a mutually satisfying relationship to learn to relate well to their families of origin f applicable, to engage in reproductive life planning The first stage of family life is a tenuous one, as evidenced by the high rate of divorce or insularism of partners at this stage. The time frame for this stage extends from marriage to the birth of the first child. Stage 2 The early child-bearing family The birth or adoption of a first child is usually an exciting yet stressful event in a family. It requires economic and social role changes. The duration of this stage is from the birth or adoption of the first child to 30 months after this date. The following developmental tasks are usually accomplish during this stage * * * he establishment of a stable family unit the reconciliation of conflict regarding developmental tasks facilitating developmental tasks of family members Stage 3 The family with pre-school children A family with pre-school children is a busy family as children at this age demand a great deal of time related to growth and de velopmental needs and safety accidents are a study health concern at this stage. The time frame for this stage is when the oldest child is two to five years of age. Developmental tasks during this stage include * * * integration of second or third child socialisation of children spring of separation from children 18Stage 4 The family with school-age children Parents of school-age children have the major responsibility of preparing their children to be able to function in a complex world. At the same time they have to maintain their own satisfying marriage relationship ? this can be a difficult time for a family. Many families need the support of tertiary services such as friends, church organisations or counselling. The time frame for the family with school-age children is when the oldest child is 6 to 13 years old. Developmental tasks during this stage include * * * separation from children to a greater degree education education and socialisation aintenance of marriage Stage 5 The family with teenage/adolescent children The primary goal for parents with teenagers differs considerably from that of the previous developmental stages. Family ties must now be loosened to allow adolescents more freedom and prepare them for life on their own. Rapid technological advances have increased the gap between generations ? this can make stage 5 a trying time for both parents and children. Violence, accidents, homicide and suicide are the major causes of death in adolescents ? and death rates from HIV are growing. This places a still greater responsibility on the family.The time frame for this stage is when the eldest child is 13 to 20 years of age. Developmental tasks of this stage include the following * * * maintenance of marriage development of new communication channels maintenance of standards Stage 6 The launching centre family For many parents this stage when children leave to establish their own households is the most difficult. It appears as though the family i s breaking up and paternal roles change from those of mother and father to guideposts. The parents may experience a harm of self-esteem as they feel themselves replaced by other people.For the first time they may start feeling old and less able to cope with responsibilities. The time frame for this stage is from the time the first child leaves home to the time the last child leaves home. The following developmental tasks should be accomplished during stage 6 * * * * * promotion of independence integration of in-law children restoring of marital relationship developing of outside interests assisting own aging parents Stage 7 The family of middle years At this stage a family returns to a two-partner nuclear family, as before childbearing.Some partners see this stage as the prime time of their lives with the opportunity to do things they never had time or finances for, such as travelling and hobbies. Others may experience this time as a period of gradual decline without the constant a ctivity and stimulation of children in the home and may experience the empty nest syndrome. Support people may 19 also not be as big as earlier in the parents lives. The time frame for this stage is from the time the last child leaves to retirement. Developmental tasks for this stage include * * * developing void activities provision of a healthy environment ustaining a satisfying relationship with children and grandchildren Stage 8 The family in retirement or older age The number of families of retirement age is increase rapidly, with people living endless as a result of advanced technology, medical research and increasing health consciousness. Family members of this group are, however, more apt to suffer from chronic and incapacitating conditions than people in the younger age groups. The time frame for this stage lasts from retirement to death. Developmental tasks include the following (Clark 2008323) * * * maintaining satisfying living arrangements adjusting to cut down inc ome djusting to loss of spouse Prescribed reading Study Duvalls and Carter and McGoldricks stages of family development in Clark (2008, or later editions). 2. 6 The family as social system All families share certain characteristics. Every family is a social system with its own cultural values, specific roles, functions and structure and each family moves through recognisable developmental stages. A social system consists of a group of people who share ordinary characteristics and who are mutually dependent. What affects one member affects the whole family, and vice versa. Families have certain features that differ from other social systems * * * Families last prolonged than many other social systems. Families are inter-generational social systems consisting of three or sometimes four generations. Family systems include both biological and affinal relationships (relationships created by law or interest). Biological aspects of family relationships create links to a bigger kin group that are not found in other social systems. A social network support map gives a detailed display of the quality and quantity of social connections. The community nurse can use this to help the family understand its support systems and to form a basis for nursing interventions. 20 Fig 2. Social network support map Source Allender & Spradley (2005528) 2. 7 Cultural values in the family The cultural values in a family can have a major influence on how a family views health and health care systems. Each new generation takes on the values of the previous generation, passing traditions and cultures from generation to generation. A familys cultural values and behaviours can either facilitate or impede the promotion of health and prevention of disease. Prescribed reading Read Clark (2008, or later editions), the chapter on the cultural mise en scene. Activity (1) Apply the four principles of cultural assessment to the family. 2) Discuss culturally competent care. h Feedback keep an eye o n the following points 21 (1) You needed to view the culture in the context in which it developed, examine the underlying premise of culturally determined behaviour and the meaning of behaviour in the cultural context. There is a need to recognise intercultural variation. (2) You needed to define cultural competency, consider the characteristics and challenges of cultural competence and the modes of culturally competent care. 2. 8 Family functions Family functions are the activities that a family performs to meet the needs of its members.These needs include basic needs such as food, clothes, housing, emotional support and guidance. All families ? regardless of the type of family ? have in common these basic needs that require a family to function in certain ways to ensure family survival. As the social system changes, the family system has to adapt if it is to meet individual needs and equip its members to participate in the social system. The family is a hierarchical system which i s usually built on kinship, power, status and privileged relationships that may be related to age, gender, personality and health. All family functions can be reduced to two basic ones * *
Orwell and Didion, two distinguished authors that each had their own reasons for compose. twain Orwell and Didion each took time breaking down parts of their lives to give examples of the reputation of their indite and how it developed through their lives. Some have taken it upon themselves to con descriptor Orwell and Didion as similar. While it is true that they have some slight similarities, thats all to be expected of two individuals in the same profession. When you start to excavate through their words it soon becomes overwhelming on just how divergent they are as twain writers, authors, and people.Orwell had a l iodinly childhood. He tho had a nonion that he would be a writer. He dismantle described it like it was an inescapable destiny. I knew when I grew up I should be a writer I tried to abandon this idea, but I did so with the consciousness that I was step upraging my true nature . (90) This ceaselessly looming moment of self discovery stayed with him throug h his childhood through puppyish adulthood where he later tried to rebel against his ever apparent(a) nature.Orwell sensed that he had a power over words, learning to arms his gift as he toiled through the process of learning on the nose what kind of writer he wanted to be. Orwell soon was ruling the literary power that he and then strengthened with exercising his imagination. (91) Didion didnt seem to do these types of rational exercises until later. Giving Orwell a distinct advantage over the the adult male that she was finding herself breaking into. She didnt have Orwells uncanny insight into what she was going to be. In fact from what she mentioned, she didnt have both insight into her own mind ofttimes less her driving ambition.Just the opposite of Orwell, instead of her controlling her imagination, Didion was experiencing the wizard of words and simple images having a power over her. (225) As they delimitate their styles, the differences only increased. Especially a s Orwell gained his new political take infused writing style. Using the word political in the widest possible sense. Desire to push the domain in a certain direction. This new element of his writing draw a iron line in the sand between himself and Didion. This is one of the most distinct contrasts in their writing.Didions writing was for herself, about herself, to cope with herself. It was her anger and her sickness. She was the primary benefactor of her writings, It was a way to be able to sort things out in her head. (225) Orwell wrote for entirely various reasons. He didnt write for himself through artistic pursuit alone. He instead started to imprint his writings with purpose and meaning, to get his own ideas into the heads of other(a)s. Orwell wanted to change their minds on subjects he matt-up passionate about. This was the core of his writing, to write for others to influence others.He wanted to work out an impact on their thoughts and their views To change them and s ubsequently change the world virtually him. Didion in her essay never referenced Orwell besides an opening statement about stealing the title of said essay from him. She didnt point out any similarities between them at all, how could she? They had nothing in common except for both of them being writers. Orwells reasons for writing is driven, fueled and dragged with two primary concepts that he listed policy-making Purpose and Aesthetic enthusiasm.Orwells dream and goal is to make political writing into an art. Didions reasons were self discovery to formulate her thoughts and to get out the images she sees in her head. This was not a want for her, it is a need. She needs her writing to figure out her own fears, wants, likes, dislikes She sights the reason behind this was not having access to her own mind, as if writing was a key to open the door. For if she had a clear mental pathway There would have been no reason to write. (225) In windup Orwell and Didion have been different from the beginning to the end.They have different approaches to their writing, different reasons and different outcomes. I feel almost as if they are opposites rather then reflections of one another. As my eyes scan the essays both of them have compose I do not find myself thinking back to the others writing. Im incapacitated in each picture that they paint of themselves and the world. One is in red, the other in blue, they are both colors, but are nothing alike. They sanitary different, feel different, portray themselves and their basis-es and reasons differently. They are in one word different.