Friday, February 22, 2019

Organizational Interventions Influencing Employee

Blackwell publication Ltd. Oxford, UK and Malden, USAIJTD world- full(a) daybook of didactics and Development1360-3736Blackwell make Ltd. 2005March 2005 14761Articles organisational Interventions 9 outside(a) daybook of readiness and Development 91 ISSN 1360-3736 organisational interventions in? uencing employee biography step upgrowth pet by dissimilar deportment history victory taste courses Namhee Kim This line of business explores what Korean employees prefer as organisational interventions that in? ence their line of achievement phylogenesis, according to their psycheised interpretation of flight keep in liney. A quantitative smack survey was intentional from a Korean wire little(prenominal) communications comp from each(prenominal) one using a survey instrumentate. The ? ndings of this determine short-changetri saveed to the validation of theoretical discussions on the association of individuals and organisational rush nurture interventions, takeing that organizations need to design their support story mobility agreements or death penalty bonus agreements in accordance with employees occupational chemical group preferences.Introduction Market qualifys often consume substantial transformation in organizations via reorganizing, restructuring or d birthsizing (Gutteridge et al. , 1993). The characteristics of employees affirm changed as well. One of the biggest issues facing organizations is the increasing re naked as a jaybirdal of the modern dissembleforce. Determining how to fill out and develop todays leadforce effectively from the vista of public life using has arrive a scathing issue at the organisational aim. Companies must ? d ways to match organisational goals and needs with those of individuals, but employees internal penchants be often left amplely uninvestigated r look into Fellow, Korean Womens Development Institute, 1-363 Bulkwang-dong, Eunpyong-gu, Seoul 122-707, Korea. Email emailp rotected re. kr Blackwell produce Ltd. 2005, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main St. , Malden, MA 02148, USA. Organizational Interventions 47 in the design and execution of instrument of organizational interventions.This study explores Korean employees perspectives on organizational interventions that in? uence their course festering, according to in the flesh(predicate) de? nitions of calling success. Answers to this investigate question will attention organizations design and implement more effective employee life maturement policies and activities. Theories of life story taste Traditional life story theories de? ned success in monetary value of adventitious or objective factors with visible metrics, such as salary, promotions or posture (e. g. Gattiker & Larwood, 1989 Jaskolka et al. , 1985).Therefore, hierarchical advancement, larger income and increasing identification and respect from former(a)s typically indicated success at work. On the other hand, al virtually inquiryers bear investigated c atomic number 18ers from an internal, inherent perspective. Schein examined individuals subjective ideas around work life and their roles within it (van Maanen & Schein, 1977). He identi? ed the thought of a race anchor, which is an occupational self-concept or self-knowledge that serves to guide, constrain, stabilize and use up the persons life story (Schein, 1978 127). Schein (1978) identi? d ? ve types of move anchors managerial competence, autonomy, security, proficient/ engageal competence, and entrepreneurial creativity. Later, triadsome more types were added service/ trueness to a cause, pristine challenge, and life style. Delong (1982) proposed replacing the term vocation anchor with rush predilection, meaning the capacity to select certain features of an occupation for enthronisation according to ones motives, interests and competencies. He identi? ed triplet raw(a) types of race orientation (iden tity, service, and strain), in gain to Scheins (1978) ? e maestro vocation anchors. Driver (1979, 1980, 1982) studied business executives and staff specialists in a variety of companies, identifying four passage concepts (transitory, steady-state, linear, and gyrate) from self-perceptions based on habits of thought, motives and decision- reservation styles. These c argonr concepts become the guiding foundation for a persons semipermanent locomote choices (Driver, 1980). Derr (1986) used the term passage success orientation to refer to how populate de? ne their success at work, and argued that an individuals meaning of occupational group success re? cts their individualised values, attitudes and motivation with regard to work and life. calling success orientation substructure vary considerably addicted the diversity of the modern workforce and its work values. To describe patterns of locomote success orientation, Derr (1986) actual a minimum situate of useful dimensi ons based on his interrogation with the US Navy, MBA students and multinational executives. Derrs ? ve dimensions of public life success orientations are 1. acquire ahead Traditionally, this type was imitation to be typical career orientation for most people who want to succeed in their career.Individuals who exhibit these characteristics betroth upward mobility in organizations. Advancement in status and increased right, potentiality and opportunities are similarly attractive to this type. race in this type enjoy wealth and prestige. getting impoverished Individuals in this type avoid any restrictions and pursue individualized immunity at work. They often like to pull in their own service or product, enjoying a variety of variant experiences. The rely to maintain autonomy at work is the strongest work value. Independence and be salve from external interruption make the ideal work situation. acquire limit Individuals in this type value stability, predictability or security at work. Guaranteed long-term occupation security is desirable. They are loyal to their organizations and commit themselves seriously to the order. Gaining insure jobs and feeling recognized by their organizations are closely related to their person-to-person meaning of career success. To this type of people, stability is more principal(prenominal) than getting ahead. get elevated Individuals with these characteristics pursue technical or functional expertise in one area and want to evidence their talents and skills. Excitement is very important to them.They long for continued growth and dedicate themselves to Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. 2. 3. 4. 48 International Journal of cookery and Development 5. self-re parvenuing experiences, and consider success as doing what they like. Being an expert in their interest areas is an uppermost goal of their career. acquiring fit Individuals who exhibit these characteristics pursue a fit lord and individualised l ife. They enjoy working in an environment that respects personal and family life. People view their career success in relation to other aspects of life, including family and personal culture.To them, the meaning of career success bear non be separated from the value of family and personal relationships. The emergence of this career type re? ects the diversity of the workforce and work values in recent decades (Derr, 1986). Hall (1976) introduced the concept of the protean career, characterized by individuals taking the lead in career caution, driven by the change of personal quite than organizational needs. He even argued that the career no longer exists within organizations (1996). Similarly, Arthur and Rousseau (1996) described modern careers as boundaryless, defying traditional assumptions about organizational careers.Recent literary productions, including Halls work in 2002, indicates the splendor of the individual career, particularly its internal aspects. Baruch (2004) s ummarized current measures of individual career success as a multi-level set of self-development targets gaining employability making askance transitions for enrichment . . . undertaking self commission and entrepreneurship . . . and achieving a better and richer quality of life (2004 76). A comparison of the concepts of career anchor, career orientation, career concept, and career success orientation (as well as other recent trends) allows ? e types of comm solo identi? ed career orientation to be determined, as presented in evade 1. This table demonstrates that although scholars seeked career orientations at different times and used different criteria and equipment casualty, the common categories of career orientation female genitalia be identi? ed. The categories of personal de? nition of career success also tend to obey a similar framework. Since career orientation is likely to determine (or at least in? uence) an individuals occupational decisions, it has been hypothes ized that this orientation terminate in? uence their willingness to participate in speci? career development activities (Watts, 1989). However, little literature has empirically explored the relationship between career success orientation and career development intervention. In this study, the career orientations of Korean employees are ? rst explored in terms of Derrs (1986) framework of career success orientation. Organizational interventions in? uencing employee career development (ECD) The term organizational interventions in? uencing ECD is de? ned as organizationinitiated policies or activities that could attain ECD, directly or indirectly. According to Wils et al. 1993), there are three types of career development activities currently conducted in organizations. Speci? cally, 14 activities are identi? ed with three different foci 1. 2. 3. Impersonal career, focusing on three internal staf? ng activities job bankers bill, promotion-from-within and lateral mobility. Organiza tional career, consisting of ? ve organization-oriented activities taking over plan, racy potential management, entropy collection on employees, job duplicate and data collection on incoming jobs. Individual career, subsuming 2 individual-oriented activities career planning and career instruction.In addition to these direct interventions, some organizational policies or activities may in? uence ECD indirectly (Watts, 1989). For instance, employee allowance and bene? ts can enhance or impede ECD, affecting critical career decisions. Employee estimate is often understood as a management function, but it can and should be approached from a career development perspective as well (Baruch, 2004 Iles, 1999). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Organizational Interventions 49 elude 1 Comparison of theories of career orientation 50 International Journal of Training and Development Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005.Types Description of common characteristics Advancing up the organizatio nal hierarchy Increased responsibility, authority High status, prestige, income Recognized expertise in one area Excitement to test ones talents and skills go along growth and experience Stability, predictability, security Long-term commitment, loyalty Maintenance of freedom, escape of restrictions Creation of own service or product A variety of different experiences A equilibrate life Respect for personal and family life Flexible time and job sharing Dedication to a cause, making a contribution to improve the worldScheins (1978) career anchor ordinary management competence Technical/ functional competence or pure challenge Security/ stability Autonomy/ independence or entrepreneurial creativity Life style Delongs (1982) career orientation managerial competence/ identity Technical/ functional competence Drivers (1980) career concept Linear Derrs (1986) career success orientation get ahead Baruchs (2004) measures of career success Self-development competencies Type 1 Type 2 Spiral acquire high Lateral transitions spiral exertions Type 3 Type 4Security Autonomy, creativity, or variety Steady-state Transitory acquire secure acquiring free Employability Self-management entrepreneurship Type 5 acquiring equilibrise Service Self-perceived attitudes, values and needs frequency, time, Subjective direction of career de? nition of change success Quality of life work-family balance Other types Criteria of typology Service/ dedication to a cause Self-perceived talents, values and motives Source N. Kim (2004). flight success orientation of Korean women bank employees, rush Development International, 9(6), p. 98. Many organizations do non consider such activities a part of ECD (Watts, 1989). In this regard, career systems in organizations are closely linked to human choice management systems, or employee relations, and are integrated into those systems (Gutteridge et al. , 1993 Wils et al. , 1993). Recently, Baruch (2004) elaborated his six-dimens ion model of organizational career systems, which includes involvement, sophistication & complexity, strategic orientation, developmental focus, organizational decision-making focus, and innovation.Among these, involvement, strategic orientation, developmental focus and organizational decision-making focus relate to the idea of organizational versus individualfocused dimensions (as found in Wils et al. , 1993), as well as the direct versus indirect intervention dimensions addressed by Watts (1989). Innovation and sophistication & complexity seem to be more methodological concerns this is understandable since the model was designed to facilitate guidelines for evaluating organizational career systems.Given the de? nition and backcloth of organizational interventions in? uencing ECD, broad types of organization-initiated policies or activities can be categorise (Figure 1). Individual-focused activities partially or entirely allow individuals to make decisions about their participat ion. Accordingly, participants can take primary advantage of the resulting bene? ts. Organizational-focused activities are operated primarily for organizational purposes, rather than individual bene? t.Further, indirect interventions can in? uence ECD, although they may not advance to be a part of ECD. This 2-dimensional taxonomy of organizational interventions in? uencing ECD in Figure 1 provides a useful framework for understanding the dissimilar kinds of organizational interventions in? uencing ECD that have been identi? ed from the career literature, including violence parceling systems, employee appraisal systems, cooking/development systems, career development (CD) take hold systems, and stipend/bene? s systems (Baruch, 2004 Derr, 1986 Noe et al. , 1996 Watts, 1989 Wils et al. , 1993). Under this taxonomy, 13 types of interventions can be summarized, as presented in circuit card 2. According to Table 2, succession planning, career paths, job posting/job interconnecte d, promotion/upward mobility, down(prenominal) mobility, and job rotation/lateral Direct ECD interventions Training/development systems Personnel allocation systems CD subscribe to systems Individualfocused Organization focused Compensation/benefits systemsEmployee appraisal systems Indirect interventions influencing ECD Figure 1 Two-dimensional taxonomy of organizational interventions in? uencing ECD. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Organizational Interventions 51 Table 2 Organizational interventions in? uencing ECD Types of interventions Description Personnel allocation systems epoch planning Identifying and systematically developing high potential employees for certain detect positions Career paths Structuring sequences of jobs or positions related to speci? career goals, such as managerial or technical career tracks Job posting/job subjective announcing of va lean job positions and matching matching internal individuals preferences with the job introductory to external r ecruiting Promotion/upward Advancement in position with great pay, challenges, mobility responsibility, and authority Downward mobility Moving to positions with a reduced level of responsibility and authority with an luck to develop skills and meet personal needs or interests Job rotation/lateral Systematically transferring employees laterally to another movement function or area every tooshie the course of time, not inescapably involving increased responsibilities or recompense Employee appraisal systems Assessment system Evaluating and store data on employees to discover their performance and potential, feedback can be given to employees Training/development systems Mentoring/ instruct Assigning mentors or coaches (often supervisors or superiors) to employees to benefactor them develop their careers Training/development Providing opportunities for career teaching workshops opportunities or reading events that deal with career planning or transitions, self- sound judgment, o r other career issues, or supporting individual efforts to learn and develop Career development support systems Career counselling/ Providing counselling services and guides by professionals discussions (external or internal agency) or supervisors/managers to meet individual needs in employees careers Career development grammatical construction a system for sharing discipline about career system opportunities, such as various career paths or job vacancies, programmes and bene? ts offered through a variety of media Employee compensation/bene? ts systems Individual Adopting wisdom systems for individual contributions compensation system to the organization (e. g. merit pay, individual incentives, bloodline options) Flexible bene? t plans Allowing diverse, ? exible options of bene? ts/rewards plans (e. g. , insurance or pension provisions, retirement plans, ? exible work schedule, part-time employment, child-care bene? ts, maternity and paternity leave) Note Summarized from the li terature (Baruch, 2004 Derr, 1986 Noe et al. , 1996 Watts, 1989 Wils et al. , 1993). 52 International Journal of Training and Development Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. movement fall into personnel allocation systems. Assessment systems belong to employee appraisal systems. Mentoring/coaching and training/development opportunities are examples of broad training/development systems.Counselling/ discussions and career information systems are included in career development support systems. Individual compensation systems and ? exible bene? t plans can be categorized under employee compensation/bene? t systems. It is important to note that not all organizational career-related activities have the same(p) appeal or provide the same bene? ts to all employees (Derr, 1986 Schein, 1978). Additionally, variation must be expected in terms of employees acceptance of their employers involvement in their career development (Portwood & Granrose, 1986 Rhebergen & Wognum, 1997). Only a few studies have examined what types of interventions are most let for speci? c types of employees.Derr (1986) examined contemporary CD programmes, matching each programme with certain types of career success orientations, as presented in Table 3. This table shows that there are different types of career development programmes appropriate for speci? c career success orientations. For example, some programmes are appropriate provided for get ahead people. However, empirical support for this matching was not provided. Building on this work, Watts (1989) conducted empirical research to see if non-managerial female workers preferent different organizational CD activities according to their types of career success orientation no signi? cant differences were reported. Solid empiricalTable 3 Career development programmes and appropriate career types CD Programme get free Assessment centres Career counselling and coaching by managers Career counselling by others Career information centres Career information systems Career pathing Computer-aided instruction and information systems breedingal and professional development bene? ts Fallback-position transfers Flexible scheduling and bene? ts Family-related bene? ts High-potential identi? cation programmes Individual development plans compound career planning Job matching Job posting long employment Mentor programmes Succession planning Workshops and training events Orientation get balanced getting high Getting ahead O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Getting secure O O O Note Adapted from Derrs career development programmes (1986 255258). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Organizational Interventions 53 nowledge is not yet addressable for matching individual preferences with organizational interventions further investigation is warranted. Nevertheless, different observations in relevant studies imply the by-line hypotheses H1 People who have different career success orientations will show different preferences for career development interventions. H2 People who have the same career success orientation will show different preferences for career development interventions. Career development in Korean organizations Shifts in organizational behaviours are not culturally neutral. Although career dynamics are known to re? ect particular aspects of a culture (Derr & Laurent, 1989 Greenhaus et al. 2000), career literature has failed to billhook for career dynamics in diverse cultures. Very few studies have explored what the term career means in an international context (e. g. Derr & Laurent, 1989 Hofstede, 1980 Triandis, 1989), and careerrelated perceptions and strategies have almost never been researched in third world countries (Counsell & Popova, 2000). In terms of ECD, most Korean organizations are at a very early on stage (H. Kim, 2000). Employers have not yet felt the necessity to choose ECD systems, and employees are not acquainted(predicat e) with the meaning or implications of CD. Only a very few large corporations have begun to introduce relevant interventions into their usage (H. Kim, 2000).Consequently, examples of ECD in Korean organizations are limited (e. g. Choi, 1994 Jung, 1991 J. S. M. Kim, 1992 K. H. Lee, 1996). Comprehensive information regarding the status of Korean organizational career development is not yet available. Korean literature based on several case studies (Choi, 1994 D. K. Lee, 1993 K. H. Lee, 1996) shows that a wide range of activities, such as promotion and advancement, job rotation and transfer, and job evaluation and performance appraisal, has been addressed. The literature reviewed indicates that organizational ECD is passive viewed as a part of the human resource management function in Korea (H. Kim, 2000).Therefore, it is important that this study covers the full range of interventions, from direct ECD activities to indirect organizational interventions. methodological analysis A qua ntitative strain survey was designed to test research hypotheses on career success orientations. Data were sedate from a sample of 1000 employees in a Korean wireless communications company. The sample was randomly selected from the company directory of 3003 employees, and the survey instrument was distributed and collected through the companys intranet system. A 33. 7% response rate resulted, with 337 useable surveys returned. Table 4 shows the sample composition by demographic characteristics. The respondents ages were categorized into three groups 2029, 3039, and 40 and above. The average age was just over 33.The range was between 22 and 56. Most respondents ages were between 30 and 39 (69. 4%). The respondents average geezerhood of work experience was 5. 42, ranging between less than 1 and 13. The largest respondent group was those who have worked for 46. 99 long time (49%). Almost half of the respondents (48. 1%) were assistant managers, darn 22. 8% were managers, 21. 7% wer e employees, and 7. 4% were senior managers. Respondents were predominantly male (89. 6%), and 78% of the respondents were married. The two major types of job were 29. 1% in marketing and 38. 6% in engineering. A majority of the respondents (63. 8%) had completed 4-year college courses, and 19. % had completed graduate school. The instrument consisted of two parts. The ? rst part identi? ed individuals career success orientations. A modi? ed Derrs (1986) Career success map questionnaire (CSMQ) was used, since this instrument was earlier real to identify ? ve types of career success orientation. The questionnaire was changed from a forced54 International Journal of Training and Development Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Table 4 Sample composition by demographic characteristics (n = 337) Demographic Age (M = 33. 29, sd = 5. 09) Category 2029 days old 3039 years old 40 years old and above Less than 4 years 46. 99 years* 79. 9 years* 10 years or more Employee Assistant manager Mana ger Senior manager virile Female Married Unmarried Marketing R&D IT engineering Ad/Mgmt Internal ventures High school 2-year college 4-year college Graduate school Frequency 60 234 43 76 165 63 33 73 162 77 25 302 35 263 74 98 34 14 130 47 14 25 32 215 65 % 17. 8 69. 4 12. 8 22. 6 49. 0 18. 7 9. 8 21. 7 48. 1 22. 8 7. 4 89. 6 10. 4 78. 0 22. 0 29. 1 10. 1 4. 2 38. 6 13. 9 4. 2 7. 4 9. 5 63. 8 19. 3 Years of work experience (M = 5. 42, sd = 2. 77) practice session level Gender Marital status Type of job Education level * Months were converted to fractions of a year. choice instrument of thirty mated statements to a Likert-type instrument, in order to make it statistically possible to test its factor structures and reliability (given the lack of empirical information with regard to this instrument).The secondment part was developed to explore respondents preferred organizational interventions in? uencing employee career development. Thirteen types of organizational interventions (a s summarized in Table 2) were used for this purpose. The instrument was translated into Korean, and a three-round cross-translation performed. The face validity and construct validity of the instrument were examined in a series of three-round pilot tests and instrument revisions. Through factor analysis, with the elimination of some items, the ? ve dimensions originally included emerged. Reliability, measured by Cronbachs coef? cient alpha, was between 0. 56 and 0. 79 Getting high (0. 78), Getting secure (0. 72), Getting balanced (0. 9), Getting ahead (0. 59), and Getting free (0. 56). These results indicate some limitations in interpreting the data for Getting ahead and Getting free. To analyse collected data, descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics, such as ANOVA or repeated measures analysis, were conducted. Results Two approaches were used to test the research hypotheses. First, differences in preferences between groups were examined. Second, differences in pref erences within Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Organizational Interventions 55 each group were explored. The highest mean score among the ? ve types was deemed the dominant orientation for each individual.According to descriptive information regarding dominant career success orientations, each individuals career success orientation was identi? ed. The sample consisted of 40% Getting free, 38% Getting balanced, 17% Getting high, 3% Getting ahead, and 2% Getting secure. Since Getting ahead and Getting secure obtained very belittled percentages, those two types were excluded from the analysis. Hypothesis 1 Differences in preferences between groups The Levene test of homogeneousness of variances showed that several items, including succession planning, job posting/job matching, promotion and compensation systems, violated the assumption to conduct the ANOVAs. Those items were excluded from further analysis.As a result, the ANOVAs were conducted with the resting order items. The ANO VAs showed that the preferences for six organizational interventions differed signi? cantly according to respondents dominant career success orientation types, as presented in Table 5. According to post hoc comparisons using the Tukey test, most interventions were preferred more by Getting free than Getting balanced or Getting high. There were no signi? cant differences in downward mobility, assessment system, or career information system. Hypothesis 1 was partly supported. Hypothesis 2 Differences in preferences within groups Repeated measures analysis showed statistically signi? ant differences in Getting free preferences (Wilks Lambda = 0. 396, F = 13. 86) at the 0. 001 level crossways the 13 organizational interventions. According to post hoc pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni test, succession planning, career paths, job posting/job matching, promotion, and training/development opportunities were signi? cantly more preferred than other interventions, while downward mobi lity and career information system were signi? cantly less preferred. Repeated measures analysis showed statistically signi? cant differences in Getting balanced preferences (Wilks Lambda = 0. 471, F = 9. 63) at the 0. 001 level across the 13 organizational interventions.According to post hoc pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni test, job posting/job matching and training/development opportunities were signi? cantly more preferred than other interventions, while downward mobility and career information system were signi? cantly less preferred. Repeated measures analysis showed statistically signi? cant differences in Getting high preferences (Wilks Lambda = 0. 423, F = 4. 42) at the 0. 001 level across the 13 organizational interventions. According to post hoc pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni test, succession planning, career paths, and promotion were signi? cantly more preferred than other interventions, while downward mobility was signi? cantly less preferred.Overall , hypothesis 2 was supported. Discussion of ? ndings Different types of work, pay/bene? ts, promotion systems, and types of recognition motivate individuals who have different needs (Derr, 1986 Schein, 1990). The ? ndings of this study mostly support this assertion. That is, Korean employees career success orientations seem to impact their preferences for organizational interventions in? uencing employee career development. Even within each speci? c career orientation group, some interventions were preferred over others. The ? ndings regarding preferences for the 13 organizational interventions in? uencing employee career development are discussed in detail below.Though the differences in preferences for succession planning among three groups (Getting free, Getting balanced, and Getting high) could not be compared due to violations of homogeneity of variance assumptions for ANOVA, within-group 56 International Journal of Training and Development Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Bla ckwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Table 5 Preferences for organizational interventions in? uencing ECD by career success orientation Organizational interventions in? uencing ECD Getting free (n = 121) recall 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Succession planning Career paths Job posting/job matching Promotion Downward mobility Job rotation Assessment system Mentoring/coaching Training/development Career counselling Career information system Compensation system Flexible bene? t plans 5. 65 5. 58 5. 43 5. 62 3. 98 5. 7 5. 25 5. 27 5. 55 5. 38 5. 05 5. 40 5. 50 sd 1. 06 0. 96 1. 03 0. 90 1. 49 1. 09 0. 97 1. 03 0. 95 0. 96 1. 06 1. 05 1. 04 Getting balanced (n = 115) Mean 5. 21 5. 25 5. 31 5. 29 4. 24 4. 93 4. 98 4. 95 5. 31 5. 00 4. 89 5. 09 5. 31 sd 1. 07 1. 02 0. 93 1. 01 1. 35 1. 18 0. 95 1. 06 1. 05 1. 07 1. 08 1. 05 1. 05 Getting high (n = 51) Mean 5. 24 5. 29 5. 10 5. 22 4. 04 4. 43 4. 90 4. 73 5. 06 4. 76 4. 73 5. 00 5. 06 sd 0. 79 0. 81 0. 83 0. 73 1. 30 1. 17 0. 90 1. 02 0. 90 0. 89 0. 85 0. 75 0. 93 F = 3. 76* F = 1. 07 F = 5. 66** F = 3. 38* F = 5. 80** F = 4. 84** F = 8. 27** F = 1. 89 F = 3. 51* *p 0. 05 **p 0. 01 ***p 0. 01 Between group comparison Organizational Interventions 57 Within group comparison Wilks Lambda = 0. 396 F = 13. 86*** Wilks Lambda = 0. 471 F = 9. 63*** Wilks Lambda = 0. 423 F = 4. 42*** comparison indicated that both Getting free and Getting high groups signi? cantly preferred this intervention over other options, such as job rotation, assessment system, mentoring/coaching or career information system. Derrs (1986) assertion that succession planning would be appropriate besides for the Getting ahead orientation was not con? rmed this intervention seems to be favourably accepted by both Getting free and Getting high orientations. It was bedded ? st by Getting free, and second by Getting high in rank orders. Career paths were preferred signi? cantly more by the Getting free than the Getting balanced group. Since care er paths provide individuals with the opportunity to follow their own career goals, it is understandable that people who want freedom would be in favour of this intervention, while the Getting balanced orientation maintains a need for ? exibility (Derr, 1986 Schein, 1978). Interestingly, there was no signi? cant difference in preferences for career paths between Getting high and Getting balanced. However, Getting high preferred career paths over the other intervention options.Derr (1986) suggested that career paths would be appropriate for Getting free and Getting high this was partially con? rmed by the study. Group differences in job posting/job matching and promotions could not be explored due to violations of the assumptions for ANOVA. However, Getting free and Getting balanced, respectively, signi? cantly preferred job posting/job matching over job rotation. It is assumed that the Getting free orientation seeks a position with more autonomy, while Getting balanced seeks a posit ion that accommodates personal values in family and relationships through announced open job opportunities (Derr, 1986). Getting free and Getting high signi? antly preferred promotion over job rotation, assessment system, mentoring/coaching, career counselling, and career information system. It seems that the Getting free and Getting high orientations zest some level of status that allows them to make decisions based on personal interests. There was no signi? cant difference in preferences for downward mobility, assessment system, and career information system among the groups. However, downward mobility was consistently the least preferred intervention among the 13 options. Although people tend to pursue what they want, they naturally do not want to give up their current levels of income and responsibility. Derr (1986) claimed that career information system may be appropriate for Getting free and Getting high, but o difference was found between the groups studied. Moreover, this i ntervention was not particularly preferred within any of the groups. Getting free ranked it 12th, Getting balanced ranked it 10th, and Getting free ranked it 9th in rank order. Considering that the concept and necessity of career development are still relatively reinvigorated in Korea (H. Kim, 2000), respondents may not be familiar with such ideas or aware of some systems potential bene? ts for individual career goals, which may be manifested in low preference results. Job rotation was signi? cantly less preferred by the Getting high orientation than by Getting free or Getting balanced.Since it is very important for Getting high individuals to keep jobs which they can truly enjoy (Derr, 1986), these people are likely to be reluctant to move to a new function or area. Mentoring/coaching and career counselling were preferred signi? cantly more by Getting free than by Getting high or Getting balanced. Although Derr (1986) assumed that career counselling and mentoring programmes would be appropriate for Getting balanced, this was not con? rmed in this study. These interventions did not seem to be attractive to the Getting balanced group they are in the middle rank. It seems that Getting free individuals may maintain positive attitudes toward sharing career issues, and want to be guided by someone who can help them. Getting balanced individuals may not have speci? career aspirations that can be overlap with others at work, since they view careers in relation to other dimensions of their lives. Training/development opportunities and ? exible bene? t plans were preferred signi? cantly more by Getting free than by Getting high. Although Derr (1986) and Watts (1989) viewed training/development as appropriate for all three (Getting free, Getting high, and Getting balanced) groups, our study showed that Getting free particularly 58 International Journal of Training and Development Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. preferred this intervention. Getting balanced, as a grou p, preferred training/ development opportunities over assessment system, mentoring/coaching, and career counselling.This result supports the characteristics of the Getting balanced orientation, which pursues self-development in order to remain competent at work (Derr, 1986). According to descriptive statistics, ? exible bene? t plans were also one of the most preferred interventions by Getting balanced, consistent with the arguments of S. Y. Kim (1995), Igbaria et al. (1991), and McGovern & hart (1992). Individual compensation system could not be compared between the groups. A comparison of preferences for this option within groups showed that respondents signi? cantly preferred compensation system only over downward mobility and career information system.The lower popularity of this option in all groups may be due to characteristics of Korean society and organizations (Bae & Chung, 1997). Although Korean society has been changing, teamwork and family spirit are still deeply rooted in its culture (Koch et al. , 1995), which may have led respondents to be reluctant to place value on this option. Limitations of the study This study was limited to one large Korean company it may be dif? cult to generalize the ? ndings of this study to other organizations in different cultures. Second, there may be limitations to the instrument, since it was originally developed in the context of western cultures.The instrument may contain culturally sensitive items that were not detected in the researchers efforts to validate the instrument, conduct pilot tests, and obtain feedback. Finally, at least two of the scales had lower-thandesired reliability. Implications of the study There were some theoretical efforts to link individual career orientations with preferences for career development interventions, though empirical evidence is lacking. The ? ndings of this study can contribute to the validation of theoretical discussions on the association of individuals and organizationa l career development interventions. From a practical perspective, at the organizational level, the ? dings of this study imply that organizations may want to design their career mobility systems or performance incentive systems in accordance with employees career orientations. At the individual level, the study points out workers responsibility to know their personal needs, biases and motives. Knowledge of ones own values and beliefs can serve as a basis for future career decisions, and for the development of appropriate career strategies (Aryee et al. , 1994). Recommendations for further research Organizational perspectives on the career orientations of employees deserve examination. Determining which types of career orientation are preferred by organizations may lead to a new research question.This would necessitate the expansion of the data source to a broad set of organizations with different social backgrounds. Patterns of orientation in relation to preferred career development interventions may also be affected by organizational characteristics and cultures. References Arthur, M. B. and Rousseau, D. M. (eds) (1996), The boundaryless career A new employment principle for a new organizational era. NY Oxford University Press. Aryee, S. , Chay, Y. W. and Tan, H. H. (1994), An examination of the antecedents of subjective career success among a managerial sample in Singapore. homo Relations, 47, 5, 487 509. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Organizational Interventions 59 Bae, K. and Chung, C. 1997), ethnic values and work attitudes of Korean industrial workers in comparison with those of the joined States and Japan. Work and Occupations, 24, 1, 8096. Baruch, Y. (2004), Managing careers Theory and practice. Harlow, UK Prentice-Hall. Choi, Y. S. (1994), A study on the career development program. unpublished masters thesis, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Counsell, D. and Popova, J. (2000), Career perceptions and strategies in the new market-oriented Bulgaria an exploratory study. Career Development International, 5, 7, 3608. Delong, T. J. (1982), Reexamining the career anchor model. Personnel, 59, 3, 5061. Derr, C. B. (1986), Managing the new careerists. San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass. Derr, C. B. and Laurent, A. 1989), The internal and external career a theoretical and crosscultural perspective. In M. B. Arthur, D. T. Hall and B. S. Lawrence (eds), Handbook of career surmisal (pp. 45471). NY Cambridge University Press. Driver, M. J. (1979), Career concepts and career management in organizations. In C. L. Cooper (ed. ), Behavioral problems in organizations (pp. 79139). Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall. Driver, M. J. (1980), Career concepts and organizational change. In C. B. Derr (ed. ), Work, family and the career new frontiers in theory and research (pp. 517). NY Praeger. Driver, M. J. (1982), Career concepts A new approach to research. In R. Katz (ed. ), Career issues in human resource management (pp. 2332).Englewood Cliffs, NJ Pre ntice-Hall. Gattiker, U. E. and Larwood, L. (1989), Career success, mobility and extrinsic satisfaction of corporate managers. The Social Science Journal, 26, 1, 7592. Greenhaus, J. H. , Callanan, G. A. and Godshalh, V. M. (2000), Career management (3rd edn). Orlando, FL Dryden Press. Gutteridge, T. G. , Leibowitz, Z. B. and Shore, J. E. (1993), Organizational career development Benchmarks for building a world-class workforce. San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass. Hall, D. T. (1976), Careers in organizations. Glenview, IL Scott, Foresman. Hall, D. T. (2002), Careers in and out of organizations. 1000 Oaks, CA Sage. Hall, D. T. nd Associates (eds) (1996), The career is dead long live the career a relational approach to careers. San Francisco Jossey-Bass. Hofstede, G. (1980), Cultures consequences. Beverly Hills, CA Sage. Igbaria, M. , Greenhaus, J. H. and Parasuraman, S. (1991), Career orientations of MIS employees an empirical analysis. MIS Quarterly, June, 15169. Iles, P. (1999), Managin g staff selection and assessment. Buckingham Open University. Jaskolka, G. , Beyer, J. and Trice, H. (1985), Measuring and predicting managerial success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 26, 189205. Jung, I. L. (1991), The study on the career development program. Unpublished masters thesis, Hoseo University, Kwangjoo, Korea. Kim, H. 2000), Kyunreok kebalui ilonkwa silje Theory and practice for career development in Korea. Seoul, Korea Tasan. Kim, J. S. M. (1992), A study of career development and success factors of expatriates in Korea. Unpublished masters thesis, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Kim, S. Y. (1995), Career anchor and organizational effectiveness. Unpublished masters thesis, Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea. Koch, M. , Nam, S. H. and Steers, R. M. (1995), Human resource management in South Korea. In L. F. Moore and P. D. Jennings (eds), Human resource management on the Paci? c Rim Institutions, practices, and attitudes (pp. 21742). NY de Gruyter. Lee, D. K. 1993), A st udy on the organizational effectiveness by career development program for employees. Unpublished masters thesis, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea. Lee, K. H. (1996), A study on the career development program. Unpublished masters thesis, ChungAng University, Seoul, Korea. McGovern, K. R. and Hart, L. E. (1992), Exploring the contribution of gender identity to differences in career experiences. Psychological Reports, 70, 72337. Noe, R. A. , Hollenbeck, J. R. , Gerhard, B. and Wright, P. M. (1996), Human resource management Gaining a militant advantage (2nd edn). Boston, MA Irwin McGraw-Hill. Portwood, J. D. and Granrose, C. S. (1986), Organizational career management programs Whats available? Whats effective?Human Resource Planning, 9, 3, 10719. Rhebergen, B. and Wognum, I. (1997), Supporting the career development of older employees an HRD study in a Dutch company. International Journal of Training and Development, 1, 3, 1918. Schein, E. H. (1978), Career dynamics matching individual needs and organizational needs. Reading, MA Addison-Wesley. Schein, E. H. (1990), Career anchors Discovery your real values. San Diego. CA University Associates. 60 International Journal of Training and Development Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005. Triandis, H. C. (1989), The self and social demeanor in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96, 50620.Van Maanen, J. and Schein, E. (1977), Career development. In J. R. Jackman and J. L. Schuttle (eds), Improving life at work (pp. 3095). Santa Monica, CA Goodyear. Watts, G. A. (1989), Identifying career orientations of female, non-managerial employees at Virginia Tech. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia engineering school Institute and State University, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, A50, 05, 1223. Wils, T. , Guerin, G. and Bernard, R. (1993), Career system as a con? guration of career management activities. The International Journal of Career Management, 5, 2, 1115. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 200 5. Organizational Interventions 61

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.